Principles of Management

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Managing History and Current Thinking

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. an understanding of the classical approach to management

2. an appreciation for the work of Frederick W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, Henry L. Gantt, and Henri Fayol

3.an understanding of the behavioral approach to management

4.an understanding of the studies at the Hawthorne Works and the human relations movement

5.an understanding of the management science approach to management

6. an understanding of how the management science approach has evolved

7.an understanding of the system approach to management

8.knowledge about the learning organization approach to management

9.an understanding of how triangular management and the contingency approach to management are related

DETAILED LECTURE OUTLINE

I. INTRODUCTORY CASE: “A PROBLEM AT MCDONALD’S”

II. THE CLASSICAL APPROACH
*Emphasizes organizational efficiency to increase organizational success. A.Lower-Level Management Analysis
*Scientific management emphasizes the "one best way."
1. Frederick W. Taylor (1856-1915)
* Called the father of scientific management.
*His primary goal was to increase worker efficiency by scientifically designing jobs.
(a).Work at Bethlehem Steel
*At Bethlehem Steel he constructed the "science of shoveling". Matched shovel to size of worker. (b). Global Spotlight
* Found the one best way to compete globally was through automation. 2. Frank Gilbreth (1868-1924), Lillian Gilbreth (1878-1972) * Significant contributors to the scientific method.
* Primary investigative tool in their research was motion study (reducing each job to the most basic movement possible). 3. Henry L. Gantt (1861-1919)
(a).Scheduling Innovation
*The Gantt chart
(b). Rewarding Innovation
*Gantt believed that worker compensation needed to correspond not only to production through the piece-rate system but also to overproduction through the bonus system. (c). People Perspectives

*Courier Publications involved its workers in the decision to automate. Allowing them to decide on the kind of equipment helped obtain their commitment to technology's success. B.Across Industries: Mail Order Retailing - “One Best Way at L. L. Bean” * The one best way to fill customer orders was to upgrade the information system. C. Comprehensive Analysis of Management

* Emphasizes the entire range of managerial performance.
* Henri Fayol (1841-1925)
* Usually regarded as the pioneer of administrative theory. * General management principles suggested by Fayol:
*Division of work
* Authority
* Discipline
* Unity of command
* Unity of direction
* Subordination of individual interests to the general interest * Remuneration
* Centralization
* Scalar chain
* Order
* Equity
*Stability of tenure of personnel
* Initiative
* Esprit de Corps
D. Limitations of the Classical Approach
* The human variable for the organization may not be adequately emphasized in the classical approach.

III. THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
*Emphasizes striving to increase production through an understanding of people. A. The Relay Assembly Test Room Experiments
* The experimenters believed that if productivity was studied long enough under different working conditions, those working conditions maximizing production would be found.
* The experimenters concluded that human factors within organizations could significantly influence production.
B. The Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiment
* The purpose of the bank wiring observation room experiment was to analyze the social relationships in a work group. * The research concluded that social groups in organizations could effectively exert enough pressure to influence individuals to disregard monetary incentives. C. Recognizing the Human Variable

* The Hawthorne studies pointed up the need to study the human variable, since it could...
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