PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
How will you influence people to strive willingly for group objectives in your organization (target based industry)? Apply your interpersonal influence through communication process toward attaining your specialized goals?
Organization development is a situational or contingency approach to improving enterprise effectiveness. Although various techniques are utilized, the process often involves the chief executive collecting information from several organizational units, using questionnaires, interviews and observations. The data are analyzed and prepared for feedback. The group then ranks the problems in order of their importance. The group as such discusses the difficulties, identifies the underlying causes, and explores possible solutions. The role of the manager is that of that of a coach facilitating the process. Short lectures and exercises on decision making, team building, and problem solving are integrated to the process. At times, sub-groups are established to deal with specific issues. The emphasis is on openness and objectivity. The meeting ends with an agreement on a change strategy.
The specific interventions may include a change in the organization structure, a more effective procedure for handling customer complaints, and the establishment of a team charged with the responsibility of implementing a cost reduction programme. Furthermore, the group agrees to meet again, maybe within three months to measure and evaluate the effectiveness of the organizational development efforts. Although three phases complete this circle, the effort does not end. Instead it becomes a continuous process – planned, systematic and focused on change that aims at making the enterprise more effective.
It is obvious that while enterprise objectives may differ somewhat in various organizations, the individuals involved also have needs and objectives that are especially important to them. Through the function of leading, managers help people see that they can satisfy their own needs and utilize their potential and at the same time contribute to the aims of an enterprise. Managers thus require an understanding of the roles assumed by people, the individuality of people, and the personalities of people.
Individuals are much more than merely a productive factor in management’s plans. They are members of social systems of many organizations. They are consumers of goods and services, and thus they vitally influence demand, they are members of families, schools, churches, temples, trade associations, and political parties. In these different roles, they establish laws that govern managers, ethics that guide behaviour and a tradition of human dignity that is a major characteristic of our society. In short, managers and the people or group they lead are interacting members of a broad social system.
People act in different roles, but they are also different themselves. There is no average person. Yet, in organized enterprise, the assumption is often made that there is. Firms develop rules, procedures, work schedules, safety standards, and position descriptions. All this is with the implicit assumption that people are essentially alike. Of course, this assumption is necessary to a great extent in organized efforts, but it is equally important to acknowledge that individuals are unique. They have different needs, different ambitions, different attitudes, different desires, different levels of knowledge and skills, different desires for responsibility, different mindsets and different potentials.
Unless managers understand the complexity and individuality of people they may misapply the generalizations about motivation, leadership, and communication. Principles and concepts, although, although generally true, have to be adjusted to fit specific situations. In an enterprise, not all the needs of individuals can be completely satisfied, but managers do have considerable latitude in making individual...
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