Communication process has seven main elements:
* Sender: the person who has st to communicate.
* Message: what needs to be communicated.
* Receiver: the person who will receive the message.
* Feedback: the receiver’s repsonse to the attempt by the sender to send the message. * Channel: the means of communication.
* Context: circumstances within which communication takes place. * Interference: stimulus that interferes with communication process. Communication process:
* Sender: - An individual, group, or organization who initiate the communication. * Experiences, attitudes, knowledge, skills, perceptions, and culture influence communication. * Message: Verbal utterances and nonverbal behaviours to which meaning is attribute during communication. * Encoding: the process of putting thoughts and feelings into words and nonverbal cues. * Channels: - the vehicle for the message. Oral – written – nonverbal behaviours. * Decoding: the process of interpreting another’s message. Conducted by the receiver. * The receiver: the individual, or individuals to whom the message is directed. Experiences, skills, knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and culture influence communication. * Feedback: the final link in the chain of the communication process. Gives the communication continuity. Indicates understanding or misunderstanding of the message. Stimulate further communication and discussion.
2. Communication functions:
- We communicate to meet our social needs.
- We communicate to develop and maintain our sense of self. Through our interactions, we learn who we are, what we are good at, and how people react to how we behave. Eg:
- We communicate to develop relationships.
- We communicate to exchange information.
- We communicate to influence others.
Eg: pursuade your supervisor to alter your schedule.
3. Communication characteristics
- Communication has purposes: the purpose may be either serious or trivial. The communication succeed when the purposes are achieved. - Communication is continuous: communication is nonverbal and verbal, we are always sending behavioral messages from which others draw inferences or meaning. Ex: if u are cold, you shiver. - Communication messages vary in conscious thought:
(1) spontaneous messages: without much conscious thought.
Ex: when st goes right ~> a broad smile.
(2) scripted messages: have been learned from one’s past/ childhood. Be approriate to the present situation. Ex: when u want the sugar bowl but cannot reach ~> say “Please pass the sugar, thank u” (3) constructed messages: messages put together with careful thought when one’s known scripts are inadequate for the situation - Communication is relational: two important aspects of our relationships: imediacy (the degree of linking or attractiveness in a relationship); control (the degree to which one participant is perceived to be more dominant or powerful) - Communication is guided by culture: culture is a system of knowledge shared by a relatively large group of people. Messages: formed and interpreted depends on the cultural background of the participants. - Communication has ethical implications: ethics: a set of moral principal that may be held by a society, a group, or an individual. 5 ethics standards: truthfulness and honesty (refraining from lying, cheating, stealing or deception), integrity (maintaining a consistency of belief and action. Eg: a promise to help a friend study for the upcoming exam even when busy), fairness (achieving the right balance of interests w/o regard to one’s own feeling and w/o showing favor to any side in a conflict. Eg: 2 children are fighting -> Mom listens openly before deciding what 2 to), respect (showing regard or consideration for others and their ideas, even if not agree w them), responsibility...