Health Science, Management and Pedagogy
MAN 503- Nursing Legal Issues, Ethical Concerns
And Trends in Practice
Principles in Nursing Ethics
- moral duty
- Refers to a standard to examine and understand moral life. - Ethical theories, principles and codes of conduct serve as guides of human conduct provided by ethical systems. - Making choices that are best for the individual or society at certain times and in particular situations and then evaluating such choices and outcomes. Morals
- Are specific ways of behavior or of accomplishing ethical practices Professional Ethics
- Is a branch of moral science concerned with the obligations that a member of the profession owes to the public. Health Care Ethics
- is the division of ethics that relates to human health. Bio- Ethics
- Specific domain of ethics that focuses on moral issues in the field of health care. - It evolved into a discipline all on its own as a result of life and death dilemmas faced by health care practitioners. - It is a systematic study of human behavior in the field of life science and health care in the light of moral values and principles. - Was concerned with ethical issues described with medical practice. Nursing Ethics
- Is related to all principles of right as they apply to the profession. - Reinforces the nurses’ ideals and motives in order to maximize the affectivity of their service. - “Examination of all ethical and bio- ethical issues from the prospective of nursing theory and the nursing ethics (Johnston). - “The fields of nursing ethics be focused on the needs and experiences of practicing nurses, the exploration of its meaning and that of ethical practice in terms of perception of these nurses.”
A. Ethical Principles and Other Approaches
- “The right thing to do is the good thing to do.”
- Also termed as act utilitarianism where the good resides on the promotion of happiness or the greatest net increase of pleasure over pain. - Joseph Fletcher, a situation ethicist, holds that good is agape, the general goodwill or love for humanity. If the act helps people, then it is a good act, and if it hurts people, then it is bad one.
Deontological Approach or Duty- Oriented Theory
- Basic rightness or wrongness of an act depends on the intrinsic nature rather than upon the situation or its consequences. - Immanuel Kant defines a person as a “rational human being with freedom and social worth.” - A person is morally good and admirable if his actions are dome from a sense of duty and reason. - W.D. Ross considers consequences to have in his theory of “prima facie duties”, which means “what one should do when other relevant factors in a situation are not considered”. - These are:
• Duties of fidelity- telling the truth, keeping actual implicit promises. • Duties of reparation- righting the wrong we have done to others. • Duties of gratitude- recognizing the service others have done for us. • Duties of justice- preventing distribution of pleasure or happiness that is not keeping with the merit of people involved. • Duties of beneficence- helping to better the condition of other beings. • Duties of self-improvement- bearing ourselves with respect to virtue or intelligence. • Duties of nonmalifecence- avoiding or preventing injury to others.
Virtue Ethics Approach
- Known as aretaic ethics, focused primarily on the heart of the person performing the act. - It focuses on the traits and virtues of a good person such as courage, temperance, wisdom and justice. - Intellectual Virtue- is the power to deliberate about things good for oneself. - Moral Virtues- must be lived over time in order to be learned.
B. Divine Command Ethics
- Is based on the theory that there is a Supreme...