The domino effect is a chain reaction that occurs when a small change causes a similar change nearby, which then causes another similar change, and so on in linear sequence. The term is best known as a mechanical effect. It typically refers to a linked sequence of events where the time between successive events is relatively small. It can be used literally (an observed series of actual collisions) or metaphorically (causal linkages within systems such as global finance or politics).
In the theory X, management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can. As a result, management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls to develop. A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each and every level. According to this theory, employees will show little ambition without an attractive incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can. Beliefs of this theory lead to mistrust, highly restrictive supervision, and a punitive atmosphere. Theory Y
In this theory, management assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work. They possess the ability for creative problem solving, but their talents are underused in most organizations. Given the proper conditions, theory Y managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility. They will exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed. A Theory Y manager believes that, the satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation. Many people interpret Theory Y as a positive set of beliefs about workers. Theory Y managers develop the climate of trust with employees that is required for human resource development. This would include managers communicating openly with subordinates, minimizing the difference between...
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