Principle of Management & Organizational Behaviour

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1) Definine Groups. Explain the different types of Groups.

We can define "group" as more than two employees who have an ongoing relationship in which they interact and influence one another's behaviour and performance. The behaviour of individuals in groups is something more than the sum total of each acting in his or her own way.

Groups can be either 1) Formal or 2) Informal

1. Formal Groups: are set up by the organization to carry out work in support of the organization's goals. In formal groups, the behaviours that one should engage in are stipulated by and directed toward organizational goals. Examples are a bookkeeping department, an executive committee, a product development team etc. Formal group can be (a) command groups or (b) task groups.

(a)Command Group: Consists of a manager and the employees who report to him or her and it is defined in terms of the organization's hierarchy.

(b)Task Group: is made up of employees who work together to complete a particular task or project. Task group may be temporary with an established life span, or they may be open ended.

2.Informal Groups are groups that evolve to meet social or affiliation needs by bringing people together based on shared interests or friendship. Thus, informal groups are alliances that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. These groups are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contact. Informal Groups are classified in to (i) Friendship Groups (ii) Interest Groups (iii) Reference Groups & (iv) Membership Groups

(i)Friendship Groups are groups developed due to one or more common characteristics of individual members. This can be based on similar age, hold same political view, attended the same college etc.

(ii)Interest Groups: are formed attain a specific objective with which each is concerned.

(iii) Reference Groups:
When people use a group as a basis for comparison in making decisions or forming opinions then such a group is called a reference group. For most people, the family is the most important reference groups. Other important reference groups typically include co- workers, friends, and members of the person's religious organization.

(iv) Membership Groups: When a person does belong to a group, the group is called a membership group for that person.

2) Explain the reasons for forming Groups

Formal (official or assigned groups) and informal (un official or emergent) groups form in organizations for different reasons. Organizations routinely form groups. The use of groups can contribute to achieving and maintaining a sustainable competitive advantage if they enable an organization to fully tap the abilities and energy of its human resources. Informal groups are formed to meet their individual needs.

Why do people join groups?
Security, Status, Self Esteem, Affiliation, Power, Goal Achievement.

Why do People Join Groups?

1 Security
By joining a group, individuals can reduce the insecurity of standing alone. People feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and are more resistant to threats when they are part of a group. 2 Status

Inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others provides recognition and status for its members. 3 Self-Esteem
Groups can provide people with feelings of self-worth. That is, in addition to conveying status to those outside the group, membership can also give increased feelings of worth to the group members themselves. 4 Affiliation...
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