Principles of development.
Each child is unique but the basic paten of growth development is the same for every child. Development tends to proceed from the head downward. This is called the cephalocaudal principle. According to this principle, the child first gains control of the head, then the arms, then the legs. An infant should gain control of head and face movements within the first two months after birth. In the next few months, they are able to lift themselves up using their arms. By 6 to 12 months of age, infants start to gain leg control and may be able to crawl, stand, or walk. Development also proceeds from the centre of the body outward according to the proximodistal principle. Accordingly, the spinal cord develops before other part of the body. The child’s arms develop before the hands, and the hands and feet develop before the fingers and toes. Fingers and toes are the last to develop.
Holistic development means that each area is dependent on the other to ensure the child develops to their full potential.
The links between areas of development.
Although development is described as different areas: physical, social, emotional, language and intellectual, each area needs to connect in order for the child to develop. So for instance a child might be highly intellectual and then be unable to use their knife and fork. This isn't because the child is incapable of using their knife and fork; it just has not had the chance to practice the physical skill. Another example is a child needs to wear glasses for school (physical) and other kids are teasing the child, this can mean their self-esteem is being undermined and his confidence will diminish (emotional development) and could also lead to the child becoming isolated from their friends as they cannot deal with the teasing (social) so the child stops wearing their glasses to become socially acceptable and then they can't see properly (physical) so the child cannot do his schoolwork and progress (intellectual).
Nature vs. nurture.
Nature is the development in which the child is genetically programmed from birth; this enables them to do certain things at certain times. Nurture on the other hand is the development that occurs in response to experiences from which they have had form birth onwards. The development that occurs through nature; physical-biological maturity; language-language emerges; cognitive- children take in information through all five senses; emotional and social- children need to be cared for. The development that occurs in nurture; physical- food, activity, physical comfort; language- children must hear language and be responded to it; cognitive- stimulation and encouragement through sensitive and responses; emotional and social- care that is consistent and appropriate.
Growth spurts, increase in size, height, weight and body shape.
In puberty the growth begins on the outside of the body and works in. Hands and feet are the first to expand. Next, arms and legs grow longer. The shin bones lengthen before the thigh, and the forearm before the upper arm. Finally the spine grows. The very last expansion is a broadening of the chest and shoulders in boys, and a widening of the hips and pelvis in girls.
Role of maturation in development.
Maturation refers to the sequential characteristic of biological growth and development. The biological changes occur in sequential order and give children new abilities. Changes in the brain and nervous system account largely for maturation. These changes in the brain and nervous system help children to improve in thinking (cognitive) and motor (physical) skills. Also, children must mature to a certain point before they can progress to new skills. For example, a four-month-old cannot use language because the infant's brain has not matured enough to allow the child to talk. By two years old, the brain has developed further and with help from others, the...
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