Background of the Study
Schools are one of the most important institutions in a society. It is actually termed to be the second home. It is one of the first places where the early and critical foundations of learning are built, and as early as three to four years old, a person goes and experiences life being a student.
A school is not just defined by the four walls of classroom. More than serving its academic purposes, some see it as a good source of income too. As what many consider, school is also often noted as an undying business. Teaching on the other hand is known to be the most stable job. As the cliché goes, as long as there are students, there would be schools.
It is therefore no surprise that schools sprung out like mushrooms almost everywhere. All kinds are observed, from day cares to play schools up to academies and institutes. In addition, the government exerts effort to reach the goal of providing free education through public schools. Its target is to build an elementary and a secondary school in every barangay. Schools in the country are also open for changes as they are challenged to grab every opportunity to ensure the success of every student in the country.
One of the recent developments in schools in the Philippines is the implementation of the twelve year basic education program known as K-12. This advancement aims for the Philippine education system to be at par with the standards set by other countries not just in the number of years but in academic excellence as well. Clearly, there is no other path schools would trod but to more improvements.
Efforts to improve education relate directly to the quality of leadership provided in the schools. In study after study, it has been shown that the one determinant of excellence in public schooling is the leadership of an individual - the school principal. Research on effective schools strongly supports the concept that the school principal is the key figure in a school's success or failure.
The term principal is defined as the highest ranking official or administrator in the elementary, middle or secondary school. Because of being responsible for the over-all operation of the school, the principal is also termed as the school leader. Being the principal involves multiple responsibilities and duties. As predicted by Laffey (1980), principals are expected to be "all things to all people." They are expected to be effective managers, and currently, with the focus on student achievement, instructional leaders. However, according to Scott (1983) principals and other significant groups who work with them have expectations regarding the principals' managerial role but disagree significantly about the principal as instructional leader. Therefore, empowering principals plays an important role in achieving not just the school’s success but also the students’ success.
Statement of the Problem
The principal has the pivotal role of providing the leadership for the school and its wider community. Hallinger and Heck’s (1996) review of research on the principal’s role in school effectiveness concluded that “strong administrative leadership was among those factors within a school that make a difference in student learning”. The principal’s role is a complex one, which includes being accountable to the public, building community relations, dealing with crises, and political issues, overseeing discipline, enhancing instruction, resolving managerial problems, and creating school culture.
In line with the constant change of a principal’s tasks, this study aims to give a clearer picture of how principals are empowered with instructional, administrative and management authority, accountability and responsibility over-all personnel, physical and fiscal resources of the school for a more effective and efficient delivery of quality basic education.
This paper aims to answer the following questions:
I. What is a principal?
a. The role of the...
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