Primary School Curriculum

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Unit 5 - Teaching across the Curriculum in Primary School

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this unit, students should be able to:

1. Discuss the three elements integrated in KSSR
2. Elaborate the purpose of integrating creativity, entrepreneurship, and ICT in KSSR


Teaching across the curriculum is becoming, and increasingly a popular approach in teaching and learning. The emphasis is it involves several subjects in one main lesson topic. Thus, when an instructor teaches across the curriculum, he is incorporating several subjects into one lesson plan. For example, a lesson may include elements of Bahasa Melayu, English, science, math and social studies relevant and appropriate to the main lesson topic. This approach allows learners to be exposed to a variety of contexts to incorporate learning with real life situation that enhances preparation for future life. Basically, KSSR emphasizes three elements to be integrated across the curriculum. They are:

• Creativity and innovation

• Entrepreneurship

• Information and communication technology (ICT)

Figure 1: Elements across the Curriculum (EAC)

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Creativity and innovation

Creativity and innovation are interrelated. In general, creativity means any initiative that generates new idea, approach or action. Meanwhile, innovation is the process in generating and application of creative ideas to a new situation. In educational context, creativity and innovation are blended together to ensure both are implemented in teaching and learning in order to develop human capital as intended in the curriculum. Thus, learners’ talent and ability in creating and innovating need to be developed to the optimum. The end results would produce citizens who are creative and innovative, which is big asset to the country.


Elements across the curriculum on entrepreneurship have long been introduced in the KBSR and KBSM syllabuses. Subjects like Kemahiran Hidup Sekolah Rendah are taught in the primary school and Kemahiran Hidup Bersepadu in the lower secondary school, while subjects like Perdagangan and Asas Keusahawanan are taught in secondary school. However, this aspect of entrepreneurship was not effectively stressed at the implementation stage, particularly in primary school. For the reason mentioned, integration and incorporation of elements of entrepreneurship across the curriculum is introduced in the KSSR beginning 2011. It is hoped that the integration of this element would produce learners who have the characteristics of being entrepreneurial and to possess innovative and creative work culture, so much so to have a strong interest in business.

In order to understand the elements of entrepreneurship across the...
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