There a three main ways the HIV can be spread:
1. Sexual intercourse
2. Intravenous drugs
3. Blood transfusions (which are very rare now because all blood is tested)
HIV is spreading like wild fire among adolescents because they don't believe it can happen to them.
Prevention for positives is only possible if a person knows his or her HIV status. Voluntary counseling and testing strategies (VCT), a cornerstone of HIV prevention, has generally been seen as a first defense against the spread of HIV disease, with the idea that a negative serological test, combined with prevention information, would inspire harm reduction. Recognizing the critical role of knowledge of status, many governments and organizations have recently moved to "opt-out testing" . Others have championed the implementation of universal routinized testing.
THE ABC APPROACH TO PREVENTION
Since the late 1980s it has been known that individuals can take action to either reduce or avoid altogether the risk of becoming infected with HIV through sexual transmission.
The risk can be avoided altogether by avoiding any sexual activities that could cause transmission of HIV (i.e. Abstain).
The risk can also be reduced, through avoiding sexual intercourse other than with a mutually faithful uninfected partner (i.e. Be faithful) or through the correct and consistent use of condoms (i.e. Condomise). Avoiding AIDS as easy as...
• A bstain
• B e faithful
• C ondomise
PREVENTION OF MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMITION.
An intervention known as “prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV,” or PMTCT, provides drugs, counseling and psychological support to help mothers safeguard their infants against the virus. Ensuring PMTCT is provided to all women that need it is our most effective way to end mother-to-child HIV transmission
Ensuring that no baby is born with HIV is an essential step towards achieving an AIDS-free generation. But far too few pregnant women and their infants have access to this preventive treatment.
WHAT CAN BE DONE
To reach this objective, pregnant women across the developing world must be tested for HIV. PMTCT programs must be scaled up to include all mothers and babies who need them – no matter how impoverished or geographically isolated they may be. And where prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission is accessible, it must be delivered consistently and with the most effective drugs available.
There is a four-pronged strategy to prevent HIV among infants and young children. This includes key interventions to be implemented as a component of overall maternal, newborn and child health services.
Prong 1: Primary prevention of HIV among women of reproductive age within services related to reproductive health such as antenatal care, postpartum/natal care and other health and HIV service delivery points, including working with community structures. Prong 2: Providing appropriate counseling and support to women living with HIV to enable them make an informed decision about their future reproductive life, with special attention to preventing unintended pregnancies. Prong 3: For pregnant women living with HIV, ensure HIV testing and access to the antiretroviral drugs that will help mothers’ own health and prevent infection being passed on to their babies during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. Prong 4: Better integration of HIV care, treatment and support for women found to be positive and their families.
PREVENTION OF SEXUAL TRANSMISSION
Abstinence, be faithful, and condoms (ABC) has been the key message of the global HIV prevention effort, but political and religious influences have resulted in greater focus on abstinence only, despite the clear evidence that comprehensive approaches are far more effective.
Among the behavior change strategies for prevention of HIV is the use of mechanical barriers during sexual intercourse. The benefits of male condoms...