Abortions and Its
Pregnancy terminating before completing
20 weeks of gestation.
Implies expulsion of the fetus as well as
any or all of the placenta or membranes.
Spontaneous Abortion – Expulsion of all
products of conception before the 20 th
completed weeks of gestation.
Threatened Abortion – Intrauterine
bleeding occurring before the 20 th
completed weeks of gestation, w/ or w/o
uterine contractions, w/o expulsion of the
product of conception and without
dilatation of cervix
Inevitable Abortion – intrauterine
bleeding before the 20th completed week
w/ continuous and progressive dilation of
the cervix but w/o expulsion of the product
Complete – Expulsion of all products of
conception before the 20th completed
weeks of gestation.
Incomplete – some but not all of the
product of conception in the same interval.
Missed – Retention of a failed intrauterine
pregnancy for an extended period usually
defined as more that two menstrual cycle.
Recurrent – when the patient has more
than 2 consecutive or a total of 3
Induced – an elective termination of
Infected – abortion associated with
infection of the genital tract.
Septic abortion in where there is infected
abortion with dissemination of infection.
Genetic factors (10-50%)
Endocrine abnormalities (25-50%)
Reproductive tract abnormalities (6-12%)
Maternal systemic disease such as
diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism
Essentials of Diagnosis (S&S)
Suprapubic pain and uterine cramping
Extrusion of products of conception
Disappearance of symptoms and signs of
Negative pregnancy tests
Adverse ultrasonic findings (e.g. Gestational
sac, fetal disorganization. Lack of fetal growth)
Bed rest, avoid sexual intercourse and
observe the patient’s progress
Mild sedative but drug therapy generally
ineffective in preventing abortion because
so many of these uncertain pregnancies
Incomplete / Inevitable Abortion
D & C – to remove possible retained
Evacuate the uterus promptly; suction
curettage is most effective.
Patient should be observed for further
All product of conception should be
carefully examined for completeness and
1st Trimester – suction curettage
2nd Trimester – Evacuation, use
Warning Signs After Abortion
(Infected or Septic)
Fever – 37.8-40 0C
Hypothermia is suggestive of endotoxic
Malodorous discharge from vagina or cervix
Pelvic and abdominal pain
Marked suprapubic tenderness
Tenderness with movement of the cervix or
Jaundice secondary to septicemia.
Management of Septic / Infected
Diagnostics – chest x-ray
Out-patient care – antibiotics, oxytoxics
and fluid replacement
Hospitalize patient if seriously ill
D & C should be performed to make
certain that all the products of conception
have been removed.
Treatment – Complications of
Coitus and douche are contraindicated
Pelvic rest will decrease port abortal
When uterine rupture or perforation is
suspected – laparoscopy is indicated to
determine the extent of laceration and
Pelvic thrombophlebitis and septic
embolism; consider the use of antibiotics,
anticoagulants and ligation of internal and
Most abortion can not be prevented – result of
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