Prevalence of Escherichia Coli on Money

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PREVALENCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ON PHILIPPINE PESO BILL
WITHIN THE VICINITY OF ILOILO CITY
2012-2013

A Research Paper
Presented to
The Faculty College of Medical Laboratory Science Department Central Philippine University
Iloilo City

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirement for the
Research 1

JUSTINE GRACE G. JIMENEA
ISAAC JAMES T. LEDESMA
MAJA HANNAH LOU L. LOJA
ROBERTO R. MANALO JR.
JIRAH L. PEDROSA

MARCH 2013

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

A classic characteristic of human parasitic and bacterial agents is the evolution of routes for transmission pathogens to susceptible hosts. The environment plays a critical role in transmission to humans, with many environmental materials serving as vehicles. Microbial contaminants may be transmitted directly, through hand-to-hand contact, or indirectly, via food or other inanimate objects like fomites. (Rote, et al., 2010) According to Umeh, et al (2007), Contamination of objects by pathogenic microorganism is much a public health concern as contaminated materials can be sources of transmitting pathogens. Items that pass from hand to hand are likely to be contaminated with disease causing microorganisms especially if handled with unclean hands or kept in dirty surroundings. Ahmed, et al (2010) pointed out that paper currency is widely exchanged for goods and services in most countries worldwide. Paper currencies are widely used and each currency is exchanged many times during the time it circulates. If some of these paper money are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, there is a potential to spread these microorganism. Pope, et al (2002) mentioned, since bacteria, have been shown to spread from person to person via contact with fomites paper money, therefore, presents a particular risk of public health. Paper currency is commonly and routinely passed among individuals. Thus bacteria could be spread on the surface of paper currency. Paper currency, as asserted by Oyero, et al (2007) can be contaminated by droplets during coughing, sneezing, touching with previously contaminated hands or other materials and placement on dirty surface. Paper currency is commonly handled by various categories of people during transaction. The possibility that paper currency might act as environmental vehicles for the transmission of potential pathogenic microorganisms was suggested in 1970s. Various pathogens related with throat infection, pneumonia, tonsillitis, peptic ulcers, urino-genital tract infection, gastroenteritis and lung abscess had been reported. (Pope, et al., 2002) The money which may get contaminated during production, storage, after production and during use are always in circulation. Numerous research on currency in several countries indicated bacterial contamination. A study in Bangladesh reported thatEscherichia coli (58%),Klebsiella(50%), Staphylococcus aureus(25%), Salmonella (15%), Bacillus (9%), Pseudomonas (7%) and Vibrio cholera (5%) were recovered from Bangladesh Paper Currency Notes (Taka). (Ahmed, et al,. 2010) In another study carried out in Nigeria, the bacteria isolated E. coli (80%), Aerobacter (59%), Salmonella (40.9%), yeast cells (36.4%), Streptococcus fecalis(31.8%), Staphylococcus aureus( 27.3%) and the coagulase negative staphylococci (18.2%). (Umeh, et al., 2007) A similar study was also conducted in Nepal and reported thatStaphylococcusaureus, S. Epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella choleraesius, E. coli, Enterobacteraerogenesand cloaceaewere isolated from paper money of Nepal. (Lamichhane, et al., 2009) In another study in India, 100% of the currency notes of Indian upee were contaminated with bacteria. Mainly three species including E. coli, Proteus spp.And Staphylococcus aureuswere isolated. (Bhat, et al., 2010) In another study in India, currency samples of different denominations from different occupational groups were evaluated for isolation of microbial contaminants and...
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