Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Periodontal Diseases Among Adults Attending Dental Department in Rwanda Military Hospital (Rwanda): a Cross-Sectional Study

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Research Title:

Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Periodontal Diseases among Adults attending Dental Department in Rwanda Military Hospital (Rwanda): a cross-sectional study

J. Mutamuliza, 1 J. Olikiriza, 2 M. Isyagi, 3 and J. Ntaganira, 4

1 Department of Dentistry, Rwanda Military Hospital, P.O. Box: 3377, Kigali, Rwanda
2 Department of Research, Rwanda Military Hospital, P.O. Box: 3377, Kigali, Rwanda
3 Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Kigali Health Institute, P.O. Box: 3286 Kigali, Rwanda
4 Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, National University of Rwanda,
P.O. Box: 5229, Kicukiro, Kigali, Rwanda


Periodontal diseases are among the most widespread bacterial diseases of mankind and are estimated to affect 10 to 15% of the population. Available data indicates that the prevalence of periodontal disease is very high in several African countries affecting all age groups. The purpose of the present investigation is to study the prevalence of periodontal diseases among 15 to 65 years old individuals attending the department of dentistry of the Rwanda Military Hospital (Rwanda). In addition, an attempt is made to elucidate possible risk factors of periodontal diseases in this population. The study sample will include 259 participants conveniently selected, aged 15-65 years old. Data will be collected using questionnaires and by clinical examination using Community Periodontal Index (CPI) of Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need (CPITN). Plaque, calculus, gingival bleeding, periodontal pocket probing depth, gingival recession, and tooth loss will be recorded using a mouth mirror and periodontal probe. Cross tabulation, chi square statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression analyses will be used for statistical analysis at 5% level of significance. All statistical analyses will be performed using SPSS version 16.0. Health professionals will use the data from this study to identify individuals at risk and to target population level interventions.

Key words: Prevalence; Periodontal diseases; Risk factors, Adults, Rwanda

1. Introduction

Periodontal diseases are among the most common chronic diseases affecting people of all ages worldwide. However, their severe forms are more pronounced in older individuals primarily due to prolonged exposure to risk factors.[i] Periodontal diseases are the diseases that involve the periodontal structures beyond the gingival and lead to loss of connective tissue attachment.[ii] Several methods have been developed to study the distribution of periodontal diseases in a population. These methods are usually used to determine both the occurrence of periodontal diseases and associated conditions in the community.

From the epidemiological and clinical findings, it has become evident that there are different types of periodontal diseases, and therefore, different classifications (gingivitis, chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, periodontitis caused by conditions of the body, necrotizing periodontal diseases) have been applied at different times.[iii] In addition, from large epidemiological studies there is evidence that in some populations periodontal diseases are more prevalent in males than in females and that they increase with increasing age.[iv],1 One of the major risk factors of periodontal diseases is considered to be poor oral hygiene1. Prevention of periodontal diseases is important. The most widely accepted methods for controlling periodontal diseases and the associated conditions are personally and professionally applied mechanical oral hygiene measures.[v],[vi]

Periodontal health is part of oral health and health in general. Severe periodontal disease can be associated with other systemic diseases, for example, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, adverse pregnancy outcomes, cardiovascular diseases,...
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