Press in Sub Continent:
Beginning of Media:
In the sub-continent, journalism started with preliminary handwritten news sheets prepared by government news-writers during the Muslim rule. They were written dated, appeared at regular and frequent intervals. Such news sheets provided the rulers with information from all corners of the empire, regarding public occurrences, current-events, mischief in societies and hardships faced by the people. From this information, the rulers used to take decisions and plan initiatives to uphold good governance. * Organization: The initial system of hand-written news sheets, though not well standardized, was instigated on strong foundations during the rule of Delhi emperors. But the legendary Mughal emperors enhanced and strengthened it to the superior degree of excellence. News-writers or stringers were assigned in all the areas of the empire to collect news and assemble it in the paper for the court of King * Conveyance: At that time, there were no trains or by no means any electric channel. Nonetheless, a first-class postal system existed, that stringers used to send their news sheets to the capital. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was the first Muslim ruler who resourcefully structured postal system in the Sub-continent. A well-known Arab voyager, Ibn-e-Batutah, quoted that there were two kinds of post. First, the pedestrians post and second through horse-riders. Horse riders trend initiated during the Mughal’s time. Amusingly, the speed of delivery was two hundred and fifty miles a day with horse-riders. * Propagation: Newspapers from all the corners of the sub-continent, sent to the capital were read aloud in the court for the King. In accordance, he used to give specific instructions. Furthermore the court had its own news-writers who covered the daily proceedings of the court and pronounced it the next day * Significance: It was the supreme intellectual potential of Muslim rulers that they shaped and established a network of people who provided them news from other lands and hence a system of assembling news successful started. In short, this communication system between rulers and ruled helped the government maintain and sustain good governance. More to the point, it befitted in internal and external security
FIRST PRINTED NEWSPAPERS:
With the downfall of Mughal rule, Britain started offensive invasion into the sub- continent. Wherever hatred for British surfaced, people started privately-owned secret handwritten papers in order to induce and stimulate more abhorrence against East India Company. In the revolution of 1857, such papers played an effective role. * Hicky Gazette: The first ever printing press was set up by the British at Bombay in 1674. In the end of eighteenth century, printing presses were installed at Madras and Calcutta. The first printed newspaper of sub-continent appeared in 1780, with the name of “Hicky Gazette”, published by James August Hicky. The size of that paper was 12″ x 8″ with only 4 pages. For the reason that James Augustus Hicky was against East India Company and always brought forth the corruption of Government, he was soon jailed. But, Hicky continued editing in the jail too. So, in November 1781, a newspaper with name of “India Gazette” was introduced which was pro Government and against Hickey. With this haphazard changing scenario, many new newspapers came on the scene. Some supported the government and others strived for freedom * Indian World: William Duane was one of those editors who struggled hard for freedom of press. Earlier, he was a fanatical editor of Bengal Journal, but the government violently removed him with force. Soon, he started his own newspaper, “Indian World” which was more authentic and openly critical to East India Company. The British released two consecutive newspapers to combat it, but failed. Interestingly, circulation of Indian World increased more than expectations. It was alarming for the Company and it...
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