Presidents of the Philippines

Topics: Corazon Aquino, Ferdinand Marcos, President of the Philippines Pages: 13 (4732 words) Published: March 1, 2013
Presidents of the Philippines

First Republic
1. Emilio Aguinaldo (1899 - 1901)

CommonWealth Era
2. Manuel L. Quezon (1935 - 19441

Second Republic
3. Jose P. Laurel (1943 - 1945)
4. Sergio Osmena (1944 - 1946)

Third Republic
5. Manuel Roxas (1946 - 1948)
6. Elpidio Quirino (1948 - 1953)
7. Ramon Magsaysay (1953 - 1957)
8. Carlos P. Garcia (1957 - 1961)
9. Diosdado Macapagal (1961 - 1965)
10. Ferdinand Marcos (1965 - 1986)
11. Corazon C. Aquino (1986 - 1992)
12. Fidel V. Ramos (1992 - 1998)
13. Joseph E. Estrada (1998 - 2001)
14. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001 - 2010)
15. Benigno C. Aquino III (2010 - Present)

First Republic
1. Emilio Aguinaldo (1899 - 1901)
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (22 March 1869 – 6 February 1964) was born on 23 March 1869 in Cavite Viejo (present-day Kawit), Cavite. Aguinaldo became the Philippines' first President. He was also the youngest (at age 28) to have become the country's president, the longest-lived former president (having survived to age 94) and the president to have outlived the most number of successors. On 24 May 1898 in Cavite, Aguinaldo issued a proclamation in which he assumed command of all Philippine forces and established a dictatorial government with himself as dictator. On 18 June, after declaring independence from Spain on 12 June , Aguinaldo issued a decree formally establishing his dictatorial government. On 23 June, Aguinaldo issued a decree replacing his dictatorial government with a revolutionary government, with himself as President. Aguinaldo died of coronary thrombosis at age 94 on 6 February 1964 at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City. A year before his death, he had donated his lot and his mansion to the government. This property now serves as a shrine to "perpetuate the spirit of the Revolution of 1896." In 1985, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas made a new 5-peso bill depicting a portrait of Aguinaldo on the front. The back features the declaration of the Philippine independence on 12 June 1898. Printing was discontinued in 1995, when it was replaced with a 5₱ coin whose obverse features a portrait of Aguinaldo.

CommonWealth Era
2. Manuel L. Quezon (1935 - 19441
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina (August 19, 1878 – August 1, 1944) was born in Baler in the district of El Príncipe[1] (which later became Baler, Tayabas, now Baler, Aurora). He served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines (as opposed to other historical states). Quezón is considered by most Filipinos to have been the second president of the Philippines, after Emilio Aguinaldo (1897–1901). Quezón was the first Senate president elected to the presidency, the first president elected through a national election, and the first incumbent to secure re-election (for a partial second term, later extended, due to amendments to the 1935 Constitution). He is known as the "Father of the National Language". During his presidency, Quezón tackled the problem of landless peasants in the countryside. Other major decisions include reorganization of the islands' military defense, approval of recommendation for government reorganization, promotion of settlement and development in Mindanao, tackling the foreign strangle-hold on Philippine trade and commerce, proposals for land reform, and the tackling of graft and corruption within the government. Quezón established an exiled government in the US with the outbreak of the war and the threat of Japanese invasion. Quezón suffered from tuberculosis and spent his last years in a "cure cottage" in Saranac Lake, New York, where he died on August 1, 1944. He was initially buried in Arlington National Cemetery. His body was later carried by the USS Princeton and re-interred in Manila at the Manila North Cemetery on July 17, 1946 before being moved to Quezon City within the monument at the Quezon Memorial Circle on August 19, 1979.

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