Satellite Communications, 3rd ed.
McGraw-Hill International Ed.
Features offered by satellite communications
large areas of the earth are visible from the satellite, thus the satellite can form the star point of a communications net linking together many users simultaneously, users who may be widely
Provide communications links to remote communities
Remote sensing detection of pollution, weather conditions, search and rescue operations.
1.2 Frequency allocations
International Telecommunication Union
(ITU) coordination and planning
World divided into three regions:
± Region 1: Europe, Africa, formerly Soviet
± Region 2: North and South America,
± Region 3: Asia (excluding region 1), Australia,
south west Pacific
Within regions, frequency bands are allocated to various
Fixed satellite service (FSS)
Telephone networks, television signals to cable
Broadcasting satellite service (BSS)
Direct broadcast to home Astro is a subscription-based
direct broadcast satellite (DBS) or direct-to-home satellite television and radio service in Malaysia and Brunei
Mobile satellite service
Land mobile, maritime mobile, aeronautical mobile
Navigational satellite service
Global positioning system
Meteorological satellite service
Frequency band designations in common use for
International Telecommunications Satellite
Created in 1964, now has 140 member countries, >40
orbits earth`s equitorial plane.
Atlantic ocean Region (AOR), Indian Ocean Region
(IOR), Pacific Ocean Region.
Latest INTELSAT IX satellites wider range of service
such as internet, Direct to home TV, telemedicine, teleeducation, interactive video and multimedia
Satellite Coverage Maps
Coverage maps: Footprints
1.4 U.S DOMSAT (Domestic Satellites)
Provide various telecommunication service within a
In U.S.A all domsats in geostationary orbit
Direct-to-home TV service can be classified as high
power, medium power, low power
1.5 Polar orbiting satellites
Orbit the earth such a way as to cover the north and
south polar regions
A satellite in a polar orbit passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet (or other celestial body) on each
revolution. It therefore has an inclination of (or very close to) 90 degrees to the equator.
Since the satellite has a fixed orbital plane perpendicular to the planet's rotation, it will pass over a region with a
different longitude on each of its orbits.
Polar orbits are often used for earth-mapping-, earth
observation- and reconnaissance satellites, as well as
some weather satellites.
The orbit of a near polar
satellite as viewed from a
point rotating with the Earth.
in U.S.A, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA) operates a weather satellite system,
geostationary operational environmental satellites
polar operational environmental satellites (PEOS)
2.0 Orbits and Launching Methods
Johannes Kepler (1571 ±1630) derive empirically three
laws describing planetary motion.
Kepler¶s laws apply quite generally to any two bodies in space which interact through gravitation.
The more massive of the two...