A.P. U.S History
Presidential Courage covers certain presidents of whom the Author (Beschloss) thinks displayed courage in the face of adversity and integrity when it was desperately needed. Beschloss covers the 200 years spanning from 1789-1989 in the history of the U.S. Many of the Presidents he covered are undoubtedly venerable and courageous. Washington, Lincoln, Roosevelt are among these names. Sharply contrasted though are some of the other choices to be out in the book. Such as Andrew Jackson, he did manage to strengthen the power of the President, but at the unfortunate cost to the forced Indian removal such as the trial of Tears. The first issue Beschloss covered is the First major crisis our very First President, General Washington, experienced at the start of our nation, Jay’s treaty. The British had been harassing the now independent colonists for quite awhile now, they still occupied forts up North even after their surrender, and they encouraged Indian attacks and harassment on the colonists spreading westward. They even took captive colonial ships and impressed the young sailors into their service. President Washington then sent Supreme Court Justice John Jay to negotiate with the British to try to start the madness. When Jay returned however the “treaty” that called for the harassment to stop seemed hardly enough compensation for the malicious acts the British had committed. The public hated the Treaty; they even burned effigies of John Jay. Republicans pressured Washington to not sign the Treaty into effect. He eventually did however Jefferson’s Republicans help a very good number in the House and a majority vote was required to allow payment to actually put the newly signed treaty into action. The votes were in and it was tied 49-49 and they needed the vote of Frederick Muhlenberg who was a strong Republican and even attended the burning of the Treaty. He however showed...