Preservation of Forests resources
Several measures have been prescribed for the preservation of the forests. They are as follows: The trees cut down for timber or other uses, should be matched with planting of more trees, so that, there is no scarcity. The use of fuel wood and wood charcoal should be discouraged. The conventional sources of energy should be tapped. Biogas should be employed for cooking, to lessen the consumption of fuel wood. Modern methods of forest management should be practised. A forest is a very vulnerable asset. The slight neglect or unscientific working can rapidly deplete and may even annihilate it after which reforesting of the area may not be economically feasible. The silivicultural practices should be adopted. Cultivation of forest crops consists of regeneration, that is, renewal of forest crop, and tending, that is carrying on operations from time to time for the benefit of the growing forest crop during its lifetime. The silivicultural practices include use of irrigations, fertilisers, bacterial and mycorrhizal inoculations, disease and pest management, control of weeds, cleaning, thinning, breeding of elite trees and use of tissue culture techniques. The Social Forestry Programme (1976) should be encouraged. Under this programme, the so called waste lands should be utilised to produce fire wood, fodder and small timber for the use of agricultural implements. This programme includes raising, planting and protecting trees for various purposes. This programme is a boon for rural community. The annual deforestation must be followed by annual reforestation of the deforested areas. Thus the forest is conserved. There should be intensificaion of afforestation or reforestation rates to nearly three times of existing rate. The agroforestry programme should be encouraged. Under this programme the attempt should be made to use the same land for farming, forestry and animal husbandry. The urban forestry programme should also be encouraged. Under this programme, the small gardens and house compounds should be well maintained by planting flower and fruit trees. The trees of aesthetic value should also be planted along the road side. The ornamental trees should be grown in the parks and other wasteland. Such forestry programme will give nice look to the town, land mitigate the foul environment
Every effort should be made to preserve the endangered species; these species should be given priority over a vulnerable one, a vulnerable species over a rare one and a rare species over other categories. Proper management and planning should be made to preserve wildlife in their natural habitat and in zoos and national parks (ex situ). A wide range of varieties of livestock, animals for aquaculture and their wild varieties should be preserved, and priority should be given to those that are most threatened and needed for national and international breeding programme. Each country should locate the habitats of wild relatives of the economically valuable and useful animals and ensure their preservation in protected areas. The feeding, breeding, nursery and resting areas of species should be safeguarded. In case of migratory animals, a network of protected areas should be established to preserve their habitats. For those species which migrate from one national jurisdiction to another, bilateral or multilateral agreements should be made to meet out the required network. Unique ecosystems should be protected as a matter of priority. The national protection programmes should be coordinated with the international programmes like UNESCO's Man and Biosphere project 8 and national parks and protected areas of International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. This would safeguard the genetic diversity and their continuing evolution. The productive capacities of species should be determined, so that, their utlilisation should not exceed those capacities. Proper legislative and...
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