Presentation on Legumes

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A Presentation on Legumes

Submitted to Dr. M. G Patil Professor & Head Department of Horticulture

Submitted by Mr. G.A Shitu M.Sc Jnr. PG12AGR4026 Department of Agricultural Extension Education

College of Agriculture University of Agricultural Sciences Raichur, 584102

INTRODUCTION Legumes are simple fruit called pod that develops from a simple carpel and usually dehisces (opens along a seam) on two sides when dry. They are rich source of plant protein with ability to fix Nitrogen via a symbiotic relationship with bacteria (Rhizobia). This is the major peculiarity of legumes which make them suitable for soil nutrient management purposes. They belong to the Fabaceae ,3rd largest family of flowering plants with more than 18,000 species. (1st Asteraceae 24,000 species and 2nd Orchidaceae 20,000 species)

Scientific Classification Dry beans (Phaseolus spp. Kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, Lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus) Dry broad beans, Field bean(Vicia faba) Dry peas (Pisum spp.) Garden pea (Pisum sativum) Chickpea, Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) Dry cowpea black-eyed pea, (Vigna unguiculata ) Pigeon pea, Arhar /Toor, cajan pea, (Cajanus cajan) Lentil (Lens culinaris) Bambara groundnut, earth pea (Vigna subterranea) Vetch, common vetch (Vicia sativa) Lupins (Lupinus spp.) Minor pulses, hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus)Yam bean (Pachyrrizus erosus) FAO classification, 2011

Origin Geographical origin uncertain Ethiopia and Central Asia Introduce before advent of Aryans in India

Introduction Pea (Pisum sativum) is a common nutritious leguminous vegetable crop grown in cool season throughout the world. Pea is an annual plant and planting takes place from winter to early summer depending on location. Average pea weighs between 0.1 and 0.36 grams It is most commonly green, occasionally purple or golden yellow, pod-shaped vegetable.

Scientific Classification Kingdom Sub kingdom Superdivision Division Class Subclass Order Family Genus Species Binomial name Plantae – Plants Tracheobionta – Vascular plants Spermatophyta – Seed plants Magnoliophyta- Flowering plants Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons Rosidae Fabales Fabaceae – Pea family Pisum sativum Pisum sativum

Chromosome number 2n = 14 Nutritional value per 100g
Energy 339kJ (81 kcal) Carbohydrates 14.5g Pantothenic acid(B5) Vitamin B6 Folate (vit. B9) Vitamin C 0.1 mg (2%) Niacin (vit. B3) 2.1 mg (14%)

Protein

5.4g

0.2 mg (15%)

Sugars

5.7g

65 μg (16%)

Dietary fibre

5.1g

40.0 mg (48%)

Fat

0.4g

Calcium

`

25.0 mg (3%)

Vitamin A equiv.

38 μg (5%)

Iron

1.5 mg (12%)

beta-carotene

449 μg (4%)

Magnesium

33.0 mg (9%)

Lutein and zeaxanthin

2593 μg

Phosphorus

108 mg (15%)

Thiamine (vit. B1)

0.3 mg

Potassium

244 mg (5%)

(26%) Riboflavin (vit. B2) Source: USDA Nutrient Database 0.1 mg (8%) Zinc 1.2 mg (13%)

Uses Nutritive value    High in fibre, protein,, vitamins minerals, and lutein. ¼ protein and ¼ sugar of Dry weight Pea seed peptide fractions have less ability to scavenge free radicals than glutathione, but greater ability to chelate metals and inhibit linoleic acid oxidation   Outstanding source of Vitamins A, B1, and C Pods are high in chlorophyll, iron, and calcium-controlling properties,vitamins and valuable minerals.  Raw, liquefied, juice form is a rich source of Vitamin

Source of dietary food and vegetable  Matured seeds are used as vegetable or mixed in other food articles like pulav, mixed vegetables , Rice and salads etc. Medicinal value  Relief to ulcer pains in the stomach because they help use up the stomach acids. Industrial Use   Canned, frozen and dehydrated food. Pea starch used in making Bio plastics

Fodder crop  Husk and grinded seeds are fed to cattle as mixed crop with oat

World Production Statistics India is the 2nd with 3029400 Mt after China 1st with 9806682 Mt

Major Vegetable Crops In India

All-India Area, Production and...
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