Present Perfect

Topics: Grammatical tenses, Grammatical tense, Gerund Pages: 11 (2160 words) Published: April 24, 2011
Grammar Rules summary (Units 1-6)

Unit 1

The Simple Present and Present Progressive Tenses:

Present Simple:

a. We can use the simple present to talk about actions or states in the future. (Ex: 5) b. We use the simple present to talk about states, habitual, actions, facts, and things that are generally considered to be true. (Ex: 1, 2, 3, 4) c. We use the simple present with adverbs of frequency to talk about how often states and actions occur تحدث . (Ex: 6)

Present Progressive:

d. We use the present progressive to talk about planned actions in the future. (Ex: 9) e. We use the present progressive in negative sentences with anymore to talk about an action that has stopped. (Ex: 10) f. We use present progressive to talk about actions in progress at the present moment. (Ex: 7) g. We use present progressive to talk about actions in progress at the present moment and might continue into the future. (Ex: 8) Stative Verbs:

Stative verbs refer to states or conditions rather than to actions. They are generally not used in progressive form. They usually appear in the simple form even though they describe states that are in progress at the present moment.

In special cases, Stative verbs can appear in the progressive. For example, emphasizing the beginning or the slow progress of an action. - I’m understanding now = I’m beginning to understand.

Be and Have are used in the progressive form when they carry a special meaning other than existence (be) or possession (have). - I have two sons and now they are having their breakfast. (having = eating) - The chef is a nice guy, but today he is being rude. (acting rude)

PRACTICE: Exercise 2 page 7.

The Present Perfect & the Present Prefect Progressive:
The Present Perfect:
Formation: (Have / Has + past participle)
Used with: since, for, already, ever, never, yet, just.
Used to: Express an action that started in the past and still continuing up to the present or to a completed action.

1. Who has eaten all my tortilla chips?
2. He has worked as a pastry chef for five years.
3. I’ve just tasted the spaghetti sauce.
4. Have they ever tried Thai food?
5. I’ve been here since 8 o’clock.
6. Margo has already cut up the potatoes.

PRACTICE: Exercise 3 page 8.

The Present Perfect Progressive:

Formation: (have / has + been +
Used to: express an unfinished action (action that started in the past and is still happening and will continue to happen in the future).

|Present Perfect (finished actions) |Present Perfect Progressive (unfinished) | |I’ve already made the soup. |I’ve been making soup all the morning. | |I’ve just cleaned my room. |I’ve been cleaning my room all the day. |

Unit 2
The Simple Past & the Past Progressive:
* The Simple Past:
Formation: verb + d / ed (use, used – cook, cooked)
This rule doesn’t apply to irregular verbs. (run, ran – drive, drove – eat, ate) Used with: yesterday, ago, in the past, last (last week, last month, last year) Used to: express a finished action in the past.

1. Yesterday, I went to the university.
2. Margo visited Egypt last year.
3. When I passed the test, I registered for another level.

* The Past Progressive:
Formation: was / were +
Used with: when, while
Used to: express an action that started and continued for sometime and finished in the past.

1. When Cary visited Rosalyn, she was cooking.
2. Rosalyn was cooking when Cary visited her.
3. While Gerry was playing soccer, he fell down and broke his leg. 4. Gerry fell down and broke his leg while he was playing soccer.

Note: when + simple past, past progressive.
Past progressive when + past...
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