Present Perfect

Topics: English language, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical tense Pages: 17 (6330 words) Published: March 21, 2013
The theme of the present paper is “The Present Perfect”. The main goal of the work is to identify the main features of the Present Perfect and to present the cases of its use, basing on the theoretical and scientific works of Russian, English linguists. The objectives of the work, in their turn, represent ascending steps to the main goal of the project: 1. to give the definition to the present perfect;

2. to present the ways of formation of the present perfect tense; 3. to investigate cases of its use in the sentence and in American and British English compare them ; 4. to draw the line of demarcation between the use of the Present Perfect and the Past Simple Actuality of the work is the significance of the present perfect tense in the English language. That is a linguistic phenomenon, which exists not in every language and which is replaced by other tenses while translated into other languages appears to be one of the main constituents of English grammar. Novelty of the paper lies in communicative approaches to linguistic analysis of the use of the present perfect tense aimed at acquiring the communicative competence. Theoretical value of the paper is based on the analyzed data taken from the works of American and English prominent linguists. Practical value of the work may be useful in practical grammar or in a daily use. The course paper consists of 4 parts; Introduction, Main Part, Conclusion and Bibliography. The Main Part consists of 2 chapters.

Thus, Chapter I of the present paper is devoted to the general remarks the present perfect tense and comprises 3 points: 1. History of the Present Perfect Tense
2. The Formation of the Present Perfect
3. Differences between the Past Indefinite and the Present Perfect In this chapter we can find out general information about the origin of perfect tenses and the present perfect tense itself, and the ways of forming the present perfect, and the differences between the past simple and the present perfect in use. Chapter II includes 2 points:

1. The use of the Present Perfect in the sentence
2. Differences in use of the Present Perfect in American and British English. This chapter is devoted to the practical side of the work. We investigate the use of the present perfect in the sentence and the differences of the use of the present perfect in American and British English. Chapter Two can be interesting with the presentation of peculiar characteristics of the use of the present perfect of two main trends of English: American and British English. The reason I chose the theme “The Present Perfect” was the situation of not having this tense in the for us familiar languages: Russian and Kyrgyz. The Past Simple and The Present Perfect are replaced by only one tense in Russian called “Прошедшее время”. The nature of this tense seems to be familiar for the learners of English at first sight, but there are many exceptions and special cases of their use. CHAPTER I: What the Present Perfect Tense is

1.1 History of Perfect Tenses and the Present Perfect
The Present Perfect is an analytical form which is built up by means of the auxiliary verb to have in the Present Indefinite and the participle of the notional verb (e.g. I have worked. He has worked, etc.) The word "perfect" in the name came from a Latin root referring to the idea of completion—of being now finished—rather than to perfection in the sense of "no flaws" (although the latter sense of "perfect" actually evolved by extension from the former, because something [for example, a drawing or a piece of pottery] is finished when it no longer has any flaws). So perfect tenses were named thus because of the idea that (in some uses in some languages, at least) they referred to actions that were finished with respect to the present (for example, "I have eaten all the bread" involves a sense of finality). However, as seen above, the name is a misnomer in the sense that not all uses of...
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