(a) Why, according to Source A, had the Allied statesmen been unwise in their treatment of Germany? (2 marks) In the extract from Guilt at Versailles, Antony Lentin states that the Allied statesmen did not create the Treaty of Versailles to conciliate or destroy Germany. Instead, the Treaty left Germany bitter, resentful, in want of revenge and a potential enemy in the future. (b) What message is conveyed by Source E? (3 marks)
Source E conveys the message that Germany has been mistreated through the Treaty of Versailles. * The caption reads “… do you want your pockets turned out before or after death?” suggesting that not only is Germany going to die, but also its assets will be taken away. * Wilson is portrayed as a hypocrite since he speaks of self-determination while cutting Germany with the guillotine. According to Wilson self-determination is the principal that countries should be established according to the wishes of the peoples concern. However this was totally ignored by the peacekeeper, since they were just trying to weaken Germany that becoming a dominant power in Europe would be impossible. * Wilson, Lloyd George, and Clemenceau all dressed in black symbolize the executioners while Germany is portrayed as defenseless by the tied hands. Germany is shown defenseless because they had been forced to accept the terms of the Treaty of Versailles that did not consider the German’s wishes. * The “Big Three” are portrayed as united in revenge and hate against Germany.
(2) Compare and contrast the views expressed about the Treaty of Versailles in Sources B and D. (6 marks) Similarities:
Source B and D states that Germany was critical of the treaty and that critical of how Germany was forced (dictated) to sign the treaty. Source B also states that Germany had to accept the war guilt clause under humiliating circumstances which made the Germans certain to not accept the responsibilities for its fulfillment. Source D states that the peacemakers left “conscious that the treaties imposed were neither just nor wise.” Both sources also stated that the treaty might lead to bigger problems in the nation of Germany.
Source B presents each country by itself. It states that the US and Britain were able to influence France’s strong demands on Germany which could have made the treaty much worse, while Source D states the three leaders as one, which had created a horrible peace treaty that lead into failure. Source B is the only source which states that due to how Germany was forced to accept the war guilt and sign the treaty under humiliating conditions, it made the German’s resent the Treaty. However Source D states that the Treaty’s demands were hypocritical as Wilson promised self-determination yet it was an imperialist peace. It also states that the Treaty was a horrible peace treaty and escalated more problems. Whereas source B states only that peace would only exist as long as the remaining powers were in a position to enforce on the Germans.
(3) With reference to their origin and purpose, discuss the value and limitations of Source C and Source E for historians studying the Paris Peace Conference of 1919-20.[6 marks] Source C is an extract from The Economic Consequences of the Peace by John Maynard Keynes, an economist and British delegate in Paris, published in 1919. Its purpose is to inform the public that the peacemakers had not acted in the interests of peace and in the future of Europe as a whole, but instead had worked for their own nations self interest and created an agreement that Germany could not afford to pay. The extract creates a value as it shows John Maynard Keynes point a view and also Britain’s. His arguments and information are value since he was a delegate to the conference and an eyewitness to the process of the Paris Peace Conference. He provided useful...