The effects of national stress situations on children were, mainly, diagnosed by Anna Freud and Dorothy Birlingham (1942), at the time of the Blitz in England, by Kleiman (1968) and Kleiman (1975) regarding the murder of President Kennedy in the United States of America. In Israel it was executed by Ziv et al (Ziv, Krogalensky and Shulman, 1972; Ziv and Israeli 1973), who examined the level of stress with children of bombarded settlements. Freud and Birlingham found that children who were disconnected from their families and had been evacuated to safe places out of London developed a higher level of anxiety than the children whom had stayed in town with their parents and had experienced and observed the bombardments and the devastation. Ziv et al found differences in the level of anxiety of children in bombarded townships and children, whose towns were not bombarded, but they did not find such a difference between children of bombarded kibbutz and non-bombarded... [continues]
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