Preparation of Detergents

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PREPARATION OF DETERGENTS

CONTENTS

Introduction
1. Classification of synthetic detergents
* Anionic Detergents
* Neutral or non-ionic detergents
* Cationic Detergents
* Bile Salts - Intestinal Natural Detergents
* Amphoteric Detergents
* Amphoterics
2. Key Concepts
3. Raw Materials
4. The Manufacturing Process
* Introduction
* End Products
* The Blender Process
* The Agglomeration Process
* The Slurry Method
* Liquid Detergent
* Quality Control
Production Process of Laundry Detergent Powder
* Process
* Feeding of Base Powder and Additives
* Typical Production Process For Laundry Detergent Powder * Typical Ingredients
* Liquid Feeders supply
5. Smart Weigh Belt Feeder for Base Powder Production 6. Application & Technology

INTRODUCTION

If you look up detergent in a dictionary it is simply defined as cleaning agent. During the last two to three decades, however, the word detergent has tended to imply synthetic detergent, or syndet for short, rather than the older soap. In fact, commercial formulations consist of a number of components, and we shall use the term surface-active agent, or it's abbreviation surfactant, to describe the special active ingredients that give detergents their unusual properties. Synthetic detergents dissolve or tend to dissolve in water or other solvents. To enable them to do this, they require distinct chemical characteristics. Hydrophilic (water loving) groupings in their molecular structure, and hydrophobic (water hating) groupings, help the detergent in it’s “detergency” action. The first soaps were manufactured in ancient times through a variety of methods, most commonly by boiling fats and ashes. Archaeologists excavating sites in ancient Babylon have found evidence indicating that such soaps were used as far back as 2800 B.C. In Europe, the use of soap declined during the Middle Ages. However, by the fifteenth century, its use and manufacture had resumed, and an olive-oil based soap produced in Castile, Spain, was being sold in many parts of the known world. Castile soap, which is still available today, has retained its reputation as a high-quality product. During the colonial period and the eighteenth century, Americans made their own soap at home, where most continued to produce it until soap manufacture shifted away from individual homes to become an industry during the 1930s. The first detergent, or artificial soap, was produced in Germany during World War I. In 1946, the first built detergent appeared, comprising a surfactant (a surface-acting agent or soap) and a builder (a chemical that enhances the performance of the surfactant as well as rendering the laundering process more effective in other ways). Pushed along by economic prosperity and the development of relatively inexpensive washing machines in the wake of World War II, detergent sales soared; by 1953, they had surpassed soap sales in the United States.

CLASSIFICATION OF SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS
Detergents are classified as either:
* Anionic: negatively charged head
* Cationic: positively charged head
* Non-ionic or neutral: uncharged head

Class| Example| Chemical Properties| Uses|
Anionic| CH3(CH2)11OSO3-Na+
sodium dodecyl sulfate| Usually contain either
a sulfate (SO4) head| widely used due to cost and performance - laundry detergents
-dishwashing liquids-oven cleaners|
| CH3(CH2)11C6H4SO3-Na+
sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate| or
a sulfonate (SO3) head| |
|
Cationic| CH3(CH2)11NH3+Cl-
dodecylamine hydrochlorideCH3(CH2)15N(CH3)3+Br-
hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide| Usually contain a modified ammonium ion as active site which produces a germicidal action. More expensive than anionic detergents.| -cleaning plastics -hair shampoos

-nappy washes
-fabric softeners and conditioners|
|...
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