Prepaid Energy Meter

Topics: Embedded system, Microcontroller, Microprocessor Pages: 29 (8632 words) Published: October 30, 2011
1. INTRODUCTION TO EASY RECHARGING SYSTEM FOR ENERGY METER: Power sector players have made many efforts and spent considerable money and resources in formulating strategies for improving collection efficiency, however these have seldom yielded encouraging results. Metering is one of the major technical issues impacting the collection efficiency of power companies. Currently, only a few percent of power meters installed in India are electronic & rest are electromechanical.

Usually, the meter reading is taken once a month by the field executive of the distribution company. The human errors involved in collection of bills & old electronic & electromechanical type of meters together have resulted in poor metering , efficiency, zero metering, faulty reading, bribing utilities executives to charge less units & tampering of the meter to clock them reverse.

Over the last few years, prepaid energy meter has been proposed as an innovative solution aimed at facilitating affordability & reducing the cost of utilities. This mechanism, essentially, requires the users to pay for the electricity before its consumption. In this way, consumers hold credit & then use the electricity until the credit is exhausted. If the available credit is exhausted then the supply of electricity is cut off by a relay.

Those who support the diffusion of prepaid meters claims that they benefit both consumers and utilities because they help users to consume more efficiently & to improve the management of their budget , while allowing firm to reduce financial costs as well as the cost of operation. The main purpose of the project work is to design and develop a wireless Energy meter, which can be implemented in big industries and huge commercial complexes.


[pic] Fig No. 1.2(a): Block Diagram of the Home Side Unit

Fig No. 1.2(b): Block Diagram of EB Office/Recharging Point Side Unit

The block diagram consists of the following blocks:

▪ Power Supply
▪ Microcontroller
▪ RF Transmitter
▪ RF Receiver
▪ Relay Unit
▪ LCD Display
▪ Encoder
▪ Decoder

Power Supply:
It is source voltage of this project. The power supply module output voltage is regulated 5v constant direct current when the domestic power will on. So here source voltage is connected to entire positive and negative lead of entire circuits. It contains step down transformer, full wave rectifier along with filter capacitor, regulated chip and indicator circuit.

The microcontroller used is 8-bit AT89C52 microcontroller & it is the main heart of our project .The controller will fetch and latch the data from external circuit for each clock cycle while execution time. Here clock and reset module is connected to controller chip.

LED’S are special diodes that emit light when connected in a circuit. They are frequently used as “pilot” lights in electronic appliances to indicate whether the circuit is closed or not.

LCD Display:
We have used 16x2 charters LCD. The main purpose of using LCD is to display the instructions, results & contents of the microcontroller.

Relay Unit:
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field, which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover) switches.

RF Transmitter:
This module uses the technique of ON-OFF keyed (OOK’s) modulation. Local oscillator is based on PLL (phase-locked loop). The module is high...
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