Prelab 8

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Name: Aldwin J. TañoDate Performed: April 24, 2012 Lab-partner/s: Chua, Gautane, Remo, Saludares Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
I. Objectives
1. Isolate limonene from citrus fruits using steam distillation 2. Determine physical and chemical properties of hexane, limonene, and benzene

II. Procedure
Isolation of Limonene
Weigh. Add 250 mL water. Steam distill the mixture rapidly until 100 mL distillate. Weigh. Add 250 mL water. Steam distill the mixture rapidly until 100 mL distillate. Prepare a steam distillation setup. Cut citrus sample into small pcs. Fill half of 500 mL round bottom flask. Prepare a steam distillation setup. Cut citrus sample into small pcs. Fill half of 500 mL round bottom flask.

Add 3-5 mL saturated NaCl to the distillate. Let it stand. Pipette out all limonene that will float on surface. Add 3-5 mL saturated NaCl to the distillate. Let it stand. Pipette out all limonene that will float on surface. Dry the mixture by adding Na2SO4. If it clumps, add another spatula-full Na2SO4. Swirl. Dry the mixture by adding Na2SO4. If it clumps, add another spatula-full Na2SO4. Swirl.

Physical Properties of Hydrocarbons
*Note the physical state, color, solubility in water, and density compared to water of hexane, limonene, and benzene. Record observations. Add 2 dps tert-butyl chloride into each. Mix. Incline test tube. Place small crystal of AlCl3 near its mouth. Add 2 dps tert-butyl chloride into each. Mix. Incline test tube. Place small crystal of AlCl3 near its mouth. Place a drop each of hexane, limonene, and benzene into separate micro test tubes. Place a drop each of hexane, limonene, and benzene into separate micro test tubes. Chemical Properties of Hydrocarbons

2 dps of hexane, limonene and benzene into each micro test tubes +2 dp 0.005 KMnO4. Shake. Record.

2 dps of hexane, limonene and benzene into each micro test tubes +2 dp 0.005 KMnO4. Shake. Record.

2 dps of...
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