In the last decade many articles on the application of total quality began to appear and many corporate began comprehensive total quality programs. After that, total quality programs began to appear in universities. Since total quality was not invented by universities, it was corporations who invited universities to get involved in total quality (not vice versa), and since total quality achieved its fame by improving manufacturing productivity and quality, it was anything but obvious that it had something to offer universities. Only if one supposed, naively, that universities and manufacturing corporations suffered from the same ills, would it be obvious that total quality would do just as much good for universities as for corporations. An unobvious conclusion without real data can not be reached. A survey of administrators and faculty could be done to determine how total quality and professionals interact, what determine faculty reaction to implementing TQM to campus, and whether total quality in any way could be said to mitigate or eliminate some of the dysfunctions of professions.
Implicit in this focus is the decisions that have been made to make total quality applied to universities the focus of this study, not the concept of quality in general in higher education. There are large extant literatures on quality in higher education and various assessment methods, programs, and efforts. It can add more value by focusing on the contribution of total quality to higher education.
For the purposes of this study total quality is defined as all programs, efforts, sets of tactics, and human endeavors the goal or process of which involves getting nearly all members of an organization to continually engage and work toward quality improvement. Total quality can be represented by certain gurus, as they are called (in Japan: Ishikawa, Imai, Kano, Makabe; in the US: Deming, Juran, Feigenbaum, Conway, Crosby). They changed quality from a function, like finance, marketing, or any other performed by a few professional staff to something all employees across large workforces did and were trained in. They emphasized the statistical nature of work and how management interventions in response to fluctuations in work outcome often made things worse because managers could not distinguish on statistical grounds fluctuations inherent in the systems of work from fluctuations that were the result of special causes.
Total quality can also be represented by a particular form of small-group-ism (as it is termed in the sociology literature) called quality circles. These were a curious intersection of participatory with statistical management practices. Ordinary workgroups were given the authority to research the business processes that they were responsible for and continually improve them. Thus whole organizations were transformed from just doing work to both doing work and researching improvements in it (called “kaizen” the Japanese term for improvement). This is not a complete characterization of total quality but enough to move on with the research.
For the purpose of the study, Service Providers may be defined as the Faculty and Administrators of the various departments of Universities
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This study brings four literatures to bear on total quality applied to university faculties, literature on the concept and components of total quality, the components of universities, the critiques of academia, and total quality applied to universities.
An overall model of the components of total quality is created. Quality as Profession is not total quality-quality practiced by whole workforces - be quality practiced by a profession of quality assurance professionals. Its icon shows a company hierarchy with one block-department-dedicated to handling quality. Down–stream quality consists of Just-in-Time inventory...