Pre Writing Skills

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PRE WRITING TECHNIQUES
Prewriting is the first stage of the writing process, typically followed by drafting, revision, editing and publishing. Elements of prewriting may include planning, research, outlining, diagramming, storyboarding or clustering etc. Prewriting is important because it helps you generate ideas for writing. Some of the prewriting techniques are:

1. Outlining
2. Free Writing
3. Thinking maps
4. Cubing
5. Directed Questioning
6. Note making and note taking
7. Brain storming
8. Clustering
9. Charting
10. Scanning
The detail of each skill along with its examples is given below. 1. Outlining
An outline is a document that briefly summarizes the information that will be included in a paper, book, speech, or similar document. It shows the order in which the information will be presented and indicates the relationship of the pieces of information to each other. By making an outline of the document which we begin to write gives us inside of our document. Examples:

1. Suppose a general situation in which a person is given to write an article on a general topic, what should he do after selecting his topic? Of course he will begin to collect data for his article, now while collecting data, as he read through books and articles, he will create an index card. From each source the gathered information will be put in an index card. That index card will be his outline of that article and that process which he has adopted is outlining.

2. Consider another situation in which you are required to write an essay on your favorite personality (say Quaid-e-Azam). You will make an outline for the material you want to include in the essay. E.g. Birth, early education, higher education, interests, works, death etc.

2. Free Writing
A strategy designed to “free” ideas from your subconscious mind and gets them down on paper. This kind of writing is "free" in another sense; you don't need to worry about punctuation, correct grammar usage, etc. Your main objective is to write for a sustained period of time (ten to fifteen minutes) without stopping. In this you are free to make mistakes and write whatever you want. Examples:

1. Suppose you are a student and your professor has just given you an assignment. You are required to write a paper about a specific topic, or to come up with a topic of your own. You begin to panic. "Where do I start?" you may ask yourself. "How do I begin?" There is just no need to be worried. Take your pen and start writing each and everything related to that topic. Once you have done this, now just organize the things and note them neatly.

2. Suppose you are an Electrical engineer and you work in an office and your BOSS has assigned you a task to estimate budget plan of constructing a building. Obviously it is not your job but order is order. As it is not your job, you don’t need to be panic and you can write anything that comes in your mind about the assigned task.

3. Thinking Maps

Thinking maps are powerful tools to help you gather ideas and arrange information as you prepare to write for any occasion and purpose. It shows you how the parts of a subject are related. Once a person understands the essentials, “thinking maps” can be like completing a puzzle which is interesting. Examples

1.
2.

Condensation

Precipitation

Evaporation

Water vapor, a gas returns to liquid state

Liquid water falls as rain,
sleet, hail, or snow

Liquid water becomes water vapours, a gas|

4. Cubing

Cubing is the art of explaining any topic from different perspectives. Cubing is an excellent tool for rapidly exploring a topic. It reveals quickly what you know and what you don't know, and it may alert you to decide to narrow or expand your topic. These perspectives may include: 1. Describing to others.

2. Comparing with others.
3. Associating with others.
4. Analyzing it.
5. Its applications and usage....
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