The Pirenne Thesis was proposed by Henri Pierenne while he was a prisoner of war during WW1. His idea was primarily that the shape and control of Medieval land was determined by the control of waterways. He said that these waterways created trading hubs that dominated economic and political power in itself. He also contained that Islam did more to expand things than Charlemagne did. He is quoted as saying, "Without Islam, the Frankish Empire would have probably never existed, and Charlemagne, without Muhammad, would be inconceivable. " His theory at the time was highly controversial and was the cause of great ostracism for the rest of his life. Since his death though, his theory has gained more and more credibility and has gone a great way in expanding our understandings of the medieval world.
2.) The Schism of 1054
The Schism of 1054 is an event that defined religious methods and theological alliances for the course of history. It divided Christianity into two parts. The Catholic church to the west and the Orthodox church to the east. This split the church into different theological, political, military, and geographic divisions. Many thought it would lessen the impact of the church in matters of the state, but it only went to further strengthen it in their local areas.
3.) Concordat of Worms
This was an agreement between the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperors. It allowed the kings to give political power to the bishops and to appoint them for political purposes. The Pope retained the power though for all matters of a spiritual and religious nature in regards to ruling bishops. The meeting was between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emporer Henry V on September 23, 1122. The idea behind the meeting was to bring to an end all the power struggles between the two sides.
4.) Franciscans/ Dominicans
The Franciscans and the Dominicans are the two greatest orders of begging friars. Both were...