Practicals Steps on Computer Operating System

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BREAK – Sets or clear extended CTRL + C checking. The Syntax is C:\>break DIR – This is used to view files and directory on the screen in ms-dos environment. The Syntax is C:\>dir CD – This is used to change a directory. The Syntax is

RD – This is used to remove any unwanted directory. The Syntax is C:\>RD My File PROMPT – This is just the command line. Example C:\>, A:\>, D:\> etc. TIME – This is used to view or set the system time. The syntax is C:\> TYPE – This Command will dump the contents of a text file to your screen. The Syntax is C:\type file.txt VER – This is used to view Operating System Version or the Windows version. VERIFY – This Tells Windows whether to verify that your files are written correctly to a disk. The Syntax is C:\> VERIFY ON or C:\> VERIFY OFF COPY – This command copies one or more files to another location. The Syntax is C:\> Ass.Doc A: CLS – This command is used to clear the screen. The syntax is C:\> Cls CITY –

SET – Set gives you control of environment settings. The Syntax is C:\> SET string1 =string2 EXIT - Quits the CMD.EXE program (command interpreter). The Syntax is C:\> Exit MD – This is Command is used to make or create a directory. C:\> MD My File PATH – This Command displays or sets a search path for executable files. The Syntax is C:\> Path REN – This command is used to rename a directory that is already created. The Syntax is C:\> REN OLD NEW ERASE – This command is used to deletes one or more files. The Syntax is C:\> ERASE My File VOL – This command is used to displays a disk volume label and serial number. The Syntax is C:\> VOL or A:\> VOL DEL – This Command is used to deletes one or more files. The Syntax is C:\> DEL My File

Microsoft Windows Vista
Microsoft Windows 98
Microsoft Windows 2000 Professionals
Microsoft Windows XP 2002 Professionals
UNIX Operating System.

To change directory in UNIX Operating System, we type chdir. While in all the above listed Windows Operating System, we use CD to change directory.

1.FORMATFormat Command is used to prepare a new diskette or a drive for computer use. The Syntax is C:\> FORMAT A: 2.LABELLabel Command is used to give a volume label or a name to a disk either A or C drive. The Syntax is C:\> Label or A:\> Label

3.DISKCOPYThis command is used to copy all information from one disk to another. The Syntax is C:\> Diskcopy A: A: 4.Check Disk (Chkdsk)This command is use to checks a disk and displays a status report. The Syntax is C:\> chkdsk 5.QBASICThis Command starts the Ms – Dos Qbasic Programming Environment. The Syntax is C:\> Qbasic 6.XCOPYThis command is use to copy files and directory trees. The syntax is C:\> Xcopy Ass.doc E: 7.MODEThis command is used to configure system devices. The syntax is C:\> Mode 8.MEMThis command is used to display output one screen a time. The syntax is C:\> Mem 9.STARTThis command runs a window program or an Ms Dos Program. The syntax is C:\> Start 10.FDISKThis command is used to enter the system partition table when using Microsoft Windows 98 Version. The Syntax is C:\> fdisk .

1.In Microsoft Windows 95, 98 and 2000, SCANDISK is used to scan or check the disk for errors and the corrections. While in Microsoft Windows XP, Vista, CHKDSK is used to scan or check the disk for errors and corrections.

2.In Windows 95 and 98, FDISK is used to enter the partition table when creating a partition. While in Windows 2000, XP and Vista, does not have any command but the partitions are created during the formatting or the OS installations process. PRACTICAL 4

Commonly Used Extensions that have to do with system files.


1.DIR S ???
Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5.1.2600]
C:\>dir s???
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