Professional Application of Lifespan Development
Human Lifespan Development PSYC3210
Fall 2012 Capella University
Dr. Robin H. Exum-Calhoun
Early childhood is a time of remarkable physical, cognitive, social and emotional development. When infants enter the world, their skills and abilities are limited. Watching a child develop new motor, cognitive, language and social skills is a source of wonder for parents. As children grow and become adults; what they learn as a child they take with them. It is through their environment and parenting that reflect how life is; the rights and wrongs and how to be “normal.” It is important for parents to be involved in their child’s life. Children need love, affection and discipline in order to become successful. Through these earlier years, children are acceptable to everything—their mind like a sponge absorbing everything that they encounter. They solemnly depend on their parents or caregiver[s] to guide and teach them the importance’s of life. Children seem to be better individuals when they have parents that are together. This paper will introduce to you how divorce affects the development in early childhood and the importance of teaching children about relationships through play and social interactions. A personal interview will also give advice on divorce, counseling and the effects divorce has on children and parents. Most researchers now agree that studies support the notion that, on average, children do best when raised by their two married, biological parents who have low-conflict relationships opposed to those whom are divorced. Marriage and family counseling provides help to couples and families on understanding and resolving their conflicts. While helping a couple through their issues, professionals within this field also helps children learn to open up and share their feelings. My interests in marriage and family counseling stems from experiencing people in love and the positive effects it has on children. The effects of divorce range within family structures. Furthermore, understanding the findings is complicated by the fact that studies do not use consistent definitions of family types or consistent comparison measures across data sets. Early Childhood Development
Early childhood occurs between the ages of two to five-years old. During this time, young children's thinking, memory, and intelligence take significant leaps. The development of relationships with others increases, particularly with peers. As children begin to influence one another through interactions, the function of child's play becomes important to the development of social and cognitive skills. At this time, gender awareness also develops. All of these changes take place within the context of family, peers, and communities. A young child's world is comprised of the immediate contexts of family, peer, and community. During this time, peer interactions take on greater importance. In particular, play becomes critical in the means of learning cognitive and prosocial skills. Piaget outlined sequences of play where children incrementally develop more sophisticated play skills as they advance through the stages (Berk, 2010, p. 173-p. 174). The adoption of higher sequences of play indicates children's progressive social and cognitive advances through peer interaction and awareness of themselves in relation to others. How children think in early childhood is explained by Piaget's stage model. He suggested children cognitively develop in relation to interaction to their environment. Children are active explorers of their world, and through this exploration, they learn to develop cognitively. During early childhood, toddlers and preschoolers begin to think symbolically, although not necessarily logically. At this time, children's thinking is egocentric, meaning they are not able to see other perspectives; Piaget refers to this stage...
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