Power Electronics Intensive Solutions for Advanced Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicular Power Systems

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAY 2006| 567|

Power Electronics Intensive Solutions for Advanced Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicular Power Systems

Ali Emadi, Senior Member, IEEE, Sheldon S. Williamson, Student Member, IEEE, and Alireza Khaligh, Student Member, IEEE

Abstract—There is a clear trend in the automotive industry to use more electrical systems in order to satisfy the ever-growing ve-hicular load demands. Thus, it is imperative that automotive elec-trical power systems will obviously undergo a drastic change in the next 10–20 years. Currently, the situation in the automotive in-dustry is such that the demands for higher fuel economy and more electric power are driving advanced vehicular power system volt-ages to higher levels. For example, the projected increase in total power demand is estimated to be about three to four times that of the current value. This means that the total future power de-mand of a typical advanced vehicle could roughly reach a value as high as 10 kW. In order to satisfy this huge vehicular load, the ap-proach is to integrate power electronics intensive solutions within advanced vehicular power systems. In view of this fact, this paper aims at reviewing the present situation as well as projected future research and development work of advanced vehicular electrical power systems including those of electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles (EVs, HEVs, and FCVs). The paper will first introduce the proposed power system architectures for HEVs and FCVs and will then go on to exhaustively discuss the specific applications of dc/dc and dc/ac power electronic converters in advanced automo-tive power systems.

Index Terms—Electric propulsion, electric vehicles (EVs), fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), internal com-bustion engines, motor drives, power converters, semiconductor devices.

I. INTRODUCTION

BY THE time the commercialization of the next-generation car comes around, advanced power electronics and motor drives will have already established themselves as prime compo-nents of advanced vehicular drive trains. Advanced power elec-tronic converters and traction motor drives will be responsible for a major part of the vehicle’s energy usage. As of now, the automotive market is making rapid developments in case of the hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Commercially available HEVs include the Toyota Prius, Toyota Highlander Hybrid, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Lexus RX 400 h, Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid, Honda Accord Hybrid, and Ford Escape Hybrid. In the case of future HEVs, power electronic converters and associated motor drives, which control the flow of electrical energy within the HEV power system, promise to be the keys to making HEVs

more fuel efficient and emit lower harmful pollutants.

Manuscript received March 15, 2005; revised October 26, 2005. Recom-mended by Associate Editor J. Shen.

The authors are with Electric Power and Power Electronics Center, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616-3793 USA (e-mail: emadi@iit.edu).

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2006.872378

As is well known, in the first half of the past century, the 6-V electrical system in automobiles served the purpose of ignition, cranking, and a satisfying few lighting loads [1]–[5]. Since then, there has been a constant rise in vehicular power requirement. Performance loads, such as electric steering, that were tradition-ally driven by mechanical, pneumatic, and hydraulic systems, are now increasingly being replaced by the electrically driven systems, in order to increase the performance and efficiency of operation. Furthermore, luxury loads have also increased over time, imposing a higher demand of electrical power [3]. It must be pointed out here that the rate of increase of automotive loads is assumed to be about 4% per year.

Thus, such load demands have resulted in the need to scale up the onboard...
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