Pakistan is in the grip of a serious energy crisis that is affecting all sectors of the economy and the various segments of the society. As the situation stands to-day, there are hardly any immediate solutions to resolve the issue. A change of attitude and a change of life style is needed at the national level which should be triggered by the ruling elite and followed by all segments of the society that have access to electricity. At best there could be some short, medium and long-term solutions to the crisis but they need immediate planning and execution with an enormous investment. None of the previous rulers of the country solved the issue due to which the energy crisis kept on increasing regularly.
In this assignment we have presented some short-term, medium-term and long-term solutions for energy crisis in Pakistan.
* An immediate solution for power crisis is a change in lifestyles. It would begin with the acknowledgement that the country is facing a national disaster and every citizen has to pitch in to overcome it. The nation has to draw a clear line between necessities (lighting, fans, TVs, computers, etc) and luxuries (air conditioners, microwaves, etc). There is not enough electricity to meet both requirements. We should utilize daylight as possible, and our government has already taken steps about it. An early start and early end is recommended rather than having opening hours from afternoon until late at night. Air-conditioning, usually a sign of a luxurious lifestyle, needs to be ped.
* Transmission losses and a poor distribution system also account for Pakistan's energy crisis. The government and its responsible departments need to take firm action to control power theft and to improve the distribution system in general. The US department Energy (DoE) reports transmission losses of up to 30% in Pakistan. Aging and overloading of the transmission system and power theft account for Pakistan's transmission problems. This issue must be addressed proactively by the government of Pakistan. * Another solution to cope with the problem of electricity crisis is the categorical change in the pattern of energy consumption. The current energy consumption trends in Pakistan are extremely inefficient, whether it be in the sdomestic, industrial, trade or commercial sectors. With minimal effort, well over ten per cent of national electricity can be saved by applying only the first level of energy conservation that is a change in attitude. It is simple, instant and effective and all it requires is a stop to using energy unnecessarily. Leaving lights and home appliances on even when they are not being used is a common practice in our society. Similarly, many businesses such as shops dealing in cloth and garments, jewellery, cosmetics, home appliances and electronics are usually extravagantly. A further economy of 10-15 per cent can be achieved by introducing the second level of energy-conservation practices. With the help of effective electronic and print media campaigns the government can quickly educate the masses.
* Solar Energy
Pakistan is amongst those countries which receive a high level of solar radiation. Studies have shown that on average our country receives 19MW per square meter of solar energy. Solar energy is not too expensive and its best use, for now, is in domestic applications such as water heating and for UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply) systems. It is also beneficial for providing electricity to rural areas and far off villages where it is not feasible to connect them directly to the national grid. Although it is not an absolute solution to the energy crisis we face today, it is a good source of alternative energy and medium-tern solution for reducing domestic dependence on the national grid. This will not only lower electricity bills, it will also release some load off the...