Course: DVA 1501
Due date: 22 March 2013
Title: Poverty is multi-faceted concept that can be defined in various ways. Write an essay in which you outline this concept as well as distinguish between absolute and relative poverty. In your discussion provide relevant examples to illustrate your understanding. Discuss any three causes of poverty in Third World countries using concrete examples.
Table of contents
2.Definition of poverty
3.Definition of Absolute and Relative Poverty
4.Robert Chambers’ deprivation trap
5.Factors that Causes poverty in Third World countries
This assignment will focus on Poverty related issues. Poverty is a striking issue that has affected the Third World countries. Third world countries are the countries that are poor. Definition and examples of Poverty, Absolute and relative poverty will be shown in this assignment. Countries that are trapped in poverty will be explained using Robert Chambers’ deprivation trap and also discuss the factors that cause poverty in the Third World. Poverty is caused by lack of income, lack of employment, poor education and lack of poverty. Absolute poverty is a state whereby people do not have food to eat and a shelter to stay and relative poverty is a state where two elements of a society are compared. It is not different from absolute poverty because, relative poverty compares communities whereas absolute poverty compares families. Robert Chambers’s deprivation trap will also be mention to show how countries become trapped in poverty. There are factors that can cause poverty in the third world and that are social, economic and political factors.
Definition of Poverty
“Poverty is extreme and unending, human rights are eroded, the natural resources base deteriorates and human Dignity too often gives way to despair. Breaking the cycle of poverty is an integral part of development in every nation” (UNDP Annual Report 2001, in Regan C: 80:20, Development in an unequal world: 283.Poverty is a state whereby people do not have enough food to eat. For example, a family can have one meal a day or they can have a meal after a day or two. A family that both parents are not working and they have kids is a problem that causes poverty because they are unable to feed their children neither themselves. We are faced with such challenges in South Africa. (Poverty and Human Rights 1998:43-44) in Ismail Davids,Francois Theron and Kealeboga J. Maphunye,Participatory Development in South Africa,2009:46) “South Africans are aware that the inclusion of socioeconomic rights in the 1996 constitution has not brought an end to peoples social and economic hardships. There are gaps between constitutional rights, laws and policies on the one hand, and people have lived realities and experiences on the other. At the “National speak Out on poverty hearings” in 1998, it was evident that South Africans find it difficult to enjoy their social and economic rights. As these hearings, poor people identified the following factors as obstacles which impede access to their constitutional rights”
Definition of Absolute and Relative poverty
Poverty differs according to the levels of a lifestyle. They have been classified in to two categories namely: Absolute Poverty and Relative poverty. Absolute Poverty is whereby people do not have food to eat and a shelter to stay. Families faced with absolute poverty are always in danger of life and death because if they cannot get food to eat they might die or if in that particular country is raining badly or there is drought they might die. The World Bank(1975:19) in Frik De Beer and Hennie Swanepoel, Introduction to development Studies 2nd edition:2, describes absolute poverty as a situation where incomes are so low that even a minimum standard of nutrition, shelter and personal necessities cannot be maintained. In other words, absolute poverty may...