The interest in poultry and poultry products have grown tremendously in the last 20 years faster than other food-producing animal industries on how the bird products are produced, processed, consumed and marketed. Almost every country in the world has a poultry industry of some kind. The biggest challenge of commercial poultry production is the availability of good quality feed on sustainable basis at stable prices. In spite of this challenge, commercial poultry production ranks among the highest source of animal protein (Iyayi, 2008). (Mojtaba Yegani) Poultry meat and egg production have shown a considerable increase since 1970. The increase in the size of the poultry industry has been faster than other food-producing animal industries. Growth in livestock production in both developed and developing countries has been led by poultry. From the 1990s to 2005, consumption of poultry meat in developing countries increased by 35 million tons – almost double the increase that occurred in developed countries. The trade volume of poultry products has also increased parallel to the rapid growth of global poultry meat and egg production. The increase in poultry meat consumption has been most evident in East and Southeast Asia and in Latin America, particularly in China and Brazil. The share of the world’s poultry meat consumed in developing countries rose from 43 to 54 percent between 1990 and 2005, which accounted for 36 percent of the large net increase in meat consumption in developing countries over this period. Further, the proportion of the world’s poultry meat produced in developing countries rose from 42 to 57 percent. It is estimated that produc¬tion and consumption of poultry meat in developing countries will increase by 3.6 percent and 3.5 percent, respectively, per annum from 2005 to 2030 because of rising incomes, diversification of diets and expanding markets, particularly in Brazil, China and India. Poultry meat and egg production have shown a considerable increase since 1970. The increase in the size of the poultry industry has been faster than other food-producing animal industries. The *trade volume of poultry products* has also increased parallel to the rapid growth of global poultry meat and egg production. It seems that things have started to change. Feed prices, as the major expenditure of poultry production, are increasing. Disease outbreaks and related issues continue to cause significant economic losses in the industry. Nowadays, consumers are paying much more attention to quality and safety of poultry products that they eat. The trends described above, and our current knowledge of smallholder involvement, raise a critical issue: for once, a sector in which the poor are heavily involved is growing. Table 2 shows that in fact pork and poultry are the prominent growth sectors of develop¬ing-country agriculture. If the poor fail to remain active in this sector, they will have missed a tremendous opportunity to improve their livelihoods. If they participate, farm income could rise dramatically; however, the conditions under which this could occur are unclear. Although the above-mentioned issues are real, it has also been suggested that the principal reason for the exit of smallholders from livestock production in developed coun¬tries is that they are not competitive with the larger operations that benefit from both technical and allocative economies of scale embodied in genetic improvement of animals and feeds or improved organization – especially in the case of poultry and pig production where profitable adoption simply requires larger farm sizes (Narrod, 1997; Martinez, 2002; Morrison Paul et al., 2004). This is a particularly difficult issue for smallholders, as it con¬veys a sense of inevitable economic doom propelled by irreversible technological progress. Anecdotal experience suggests that many livestock production experts do not look much beyond this explanation when...
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