I.Postcolonial Crises and Asian Economic Expansion
A.Revolutions, Depressions, and Democratic Reform in Latin America 1.The success of the Cuban Revolution both energized the revolutionary left throughout Latin America and led the United States to organize its political and military allies in Latin America in a struggle to defeat communism. 2.Despite reverses in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina, revolutionary movements persisted elsewhere 4. In Nicaragua, the Cuban-backed Sandinista movement overthrew the government of Anastasio Somoza and ruled until it was defeated in free elections in 1990. In El Salvador, the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) fought a guerilla war against the military regime until declining popular support in the 1990s led the rebels to negotiate an end to the armed conflict and transform themselves into a political party. 5. he military dictatorships established in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina all came to an end between 1983 and 1990 6. All three regimes were undermined by reports of kidnapping, torture, and corruption 7. the Argentine regime also suffered from its invasion of the Falkland Islands and consequent military defeat by Britain 8. By 2000, Latin America was more dominated by the United States than it had been in 1975 9. This may be seen in the U.S. use of military force to intervene in Grenada in 1983 and in Panama in 1989 10.The United States was then able to influence Latin American nations to reduce state involvement in the economy, called neoliberalism in Latin America 11.The result of fewer government protections for local industries was economic stress in some regions, such as in Venezuela where Hugo Chavez was elected president in 1998 and began rolling back the neoliberal reforms B.Islamic Revolutions in Iran and Afghanistan
1.Crises in Iran and Afghanistan threatened to involve the superpowers; the United States reacted to these crises with restraint, but the Soviet Union took a bolder and ultimately disastrous course. 2.In Iran, American backing and the corruption and inefficiency of Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi’s regime stimulated popular resentment. In 1979, street demonstrations and strikes toppled the shah and brought a Shi’ite cleric, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, to power. The overthrow of an ally and the establishment of an antiwestern, conservative Islamic republic in Iran were blows to American prestige, but the United States was unable to do anything about it. 3.In the fall of 1980, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein invaded Iran to topple the Islamic republic. The United States supported Iran at first, but then in 1986 tilted toward Iraq. 4.The Soviet Union faced a more serious problem when it sent its army into Afghanistan in 1978 to support a newly established communist regime against a hodgepodge of local, religiously inspired guerilla bands that controlled much of the countryside. The Soviet Union’s struggle against the American-backed guerillas was so costly and caused so much domestic discontent that the Soviet leaders withdrew their troops in 1989 and left the rebel groups to fight with each other for control of Afghanistan. C.Asian Transformation
1.The Japanese economy grew at a faster rate than that of any other major developed country in the 1970s and 1980s, and Japanese average income outstripped that of the United States in the 1990s. Although the average income in Japan now lags behind that of the United States, Japan is still the second largest economy. This economic growth was associated with an industrial economy in which keiretsu (alliances of firms) received government assistance in the form of tariffs and import regulations that inhibited foreign competition. 2.The Japanese model of close cooperation between government and industry was imitated by a small number of Asian...