Antonina F. Paselio
American Samoa Community College
Pre-classical navigating implements have not satisfied the growing contemporary with its traditional use, hence the idea of modern innovation of the GPS (global positioning system). Its advanced technological utilization had provided accuracy to succumb miscalculation especially through vast environment. Methods sourced from article and book readings, internet liability compiled information to support my research.
Early Explorers such as Christopher Columbus and Magellan relied on landmarks for early navigation, which could result in serious miscalculations. Later explorers discovered they could use the stars as their primary choice for navigation. As technology increased the compass and sextant were used in navigation purposes. The needle of a compass always pointed north, while the sextant used adjustable mirrors to measure angles of the moon and stars. The sextant could only calculate latitude so a device called the chronometer was later invented by John Harrison to compute longitude. The sextant and chronometer were used together to compute measures of longitude and latitude. In the early 20th century many radio-based navigation systems were developed. However these radio based systems were either accurate or covered a large area of space, but not both. Scientists then decided that the only way to cover the entire world was to put high frequency radio systems in space, hence the idea of GPS or global positioning systems was born. According to The American Practical Navigator,
“GPS was funded and founded by the Department of Defense. The Departmemet of Defense also controls GPS. The first GPS satellite was launched in 1978. The first ten satellites were called block I satellites. From 1989 to 1993, 23 production satellites called Block II were launched. The last satellite was launched in 1994 completing the system.” From this point on...