Francis Bacon (1561-1626) divided the practice of medicine into three distinct areas: (1) the preservation of health, (2) the cure of disease and (3) the prolongation of life. 2. Prima Facie Duties
Prima facie duties are attributed to W.D. Ross. In an attempt to unite specific aspects of nonconsequentialism with those of utilitarianism, Ross determined that in deciding between ethical alternatives to a problem, the options must be weighed according to the duties that would be fulfilled by performing or not performing each option. Ross described prima facie duties as being intuitive and conditional. He defined intuition as being simply the feeling within that an act or action is right. Prima facie duties are conditional in that they can be overridden and still retain their character as duties. 3. Hippocrates
The Hippocratic Oath was first written in the fifth century B.C. Sometime during the tenth or eleventh century, the oath became Christianized to eliminate references to pagan gods. The oath focuses on the physician’s duty to the patient and to the other members of the health care profession. 4. W.D. Ross
William David Ross (1877-1971) made significant contributions to the translation and interpretation of the works of Aristotle and to moral philosophy. Ross developed a set of rules geared specifically toward governing professional behaviors. These rules are based on the fulfillment of professional duties. His “The Right and the Good” is arguably one of the most important works of moral philosophy published in the twentieth century. 5. Microallocation
Microallocation involves the determination of who will receive scarce resources such as organ procurement, and it involves solving problems dealing with matters such as shortage of kidneys. 6. Deontology
The purest form was developed by Immanuel Kant. In his theory, Kant sought to exclude the consideration of consequences when making moral decisions or performing moral acts....