Positive and Negative Reinforcement
What are Positive Reinforcement and Negative Reinforcemens?
Positive and negative reinforcement are used in most of the three theories. Negative reinforcement is used in behaviorism, where it involves the removal of an unpleasant stimulus when a desired behavior occurs. Positive Reinforcement is a technique used to increase desired behavior and is used in operant conditioning. Positive reinforcement is offering of desirable effects or consequences for a behavior with the intention of increasing desired behavior. Positive and Negative reinforcement are used or used in the theories of learning whether it is innate or learned behavior (King 2010). Positive Reinforcement and Skinners experiment
Skinner experimented using positive reinforcement, with a rat and came to the conclusion that with a stimulus or positive reinforcement a rat can learn to receive food by pressing a bar. With Skinners experiments with the rat he discovered law of effect. Skinners approach to operant conditioning involved the “Law of Effect” stating that behavior followed by positive outcomes is strengthened and that behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened. This means that positive outcomes for behaviors are strengthening to an individual and negative outcomes weaken the behavior of the individual, therefore receiving a positive reinforcement or reward will increase the likelihood of the behavior occurring (King, 2010). Shaping
Shaping is one of the first steps of operant conditioning, which is rewarding approximations of a desired behavior. An example the book gives is a rat can be shaped or trained to press a bar to eat. It is not likely for the rat to receive food when being placed in the “Skinner box”. The experimenter began to give the rat food pellets when the rat is close to the bar. The rat begins to gain the reward and continues to press the bar, which is Positive...