The traditional Systems model was proposed by David Easton in the 1960s.It is '' A model of policy-making in which the public policy process is seen as the product of a system that processes inputs, such as issues, pressures, information, thereby producing outputs, such as laws, regulations, or other statements of policy'' (Birkland: 2005, p.201). Critique
Though considered useful still has various limitations. Thomas Dye points uot that in the systems model, characteristics of a political system, which plays a very crucial role in the policy process of transforming decisions into policies has been lacking. Furthermore, the environmental inputs that influence the political system have also not been clearly defined and described. It is also seen as too simple an approach to explain the complex cycl;e of policies. It employs value laden techniques of welfare, economics and other factors like rationality, power, personnel and institutions have been neglected and not shown as integral ingredients in the policy cycle (Publicadministrationtheone: 2012).In addition, McDonald, Cleary, Miller, Lai, Siggins, and Bush (2010) also states that, it is problematic in that it treats the political system as a ''black box'' where a range of inputs are converted by means unknown into a range of outputs.
The stages heuristic model
The stages heuristic presents policy activity as a cycle beginning with issue identification and then stepping through policy analysis, policy instruments, consultation, coordination, decision, implementation and evaluation(McDonald etal: 2010). Critique
The most prominent and criticised model of the policy process, the stages heuristic (Althaus, Bridgman and David 2007; Howlett, Ramesh and Perl 2009;), draws attention to an explicit set of processes usually characterised as policy analysis. It entails the collection of information about the nature of the problem and potential solutions, and weighing competing potential solutions against one another with the goal of producing succinct information that will assist decision-makers to make a properly-informed judgement (Althaus, Bridgman and Davis 2007; Bardach 2005). With its emphasis on analysis (that is, analysis for and in policy) as one step in the policy cycle, draws attention to the utility of evaluating the relative strengths of competing policy options (McDonald etal: 2010).
The rational/comprehensive model
The rational/comprehensive model assumes that policy decisions are made rationally with the aim of maximising social gain and on the basis that all required information is available and considered(McDonald etal: 2010). According to Nayyar (2011) the rational model, will make the best decision, define the problems, establish goals and objectives, generate all possible alternatives, consider the consequences of all alternatives, evaluate all alternatives, select the best alternative, implement and evaluate the decision. Critique
It draws evaluator's attention towards exploring the degree to which the policy being evaluated is based on an analysis which is rational (an intellectual activity relatively uncontaminated by such things as moral values and advocacy group pressures) and which is also comprehensive in the sense that all the relevant information is taken into account and systematically weighed(McDonald etal: 2010). Problems arise when put into practice since social and environ,mental values can be difficult to quantify and gather a consensus on the same. It is not totally practical as it is based on the principle that the decision maker is aware of all facts and statistics that are to be considered in the b current situation and knows the best way to deal and take a completely rational decision (Publicadministrationtheone: 2012).
The bounded rationality model
The bounded rationality model posits that people engaged in policy activity act as rationally as possible within the bounds of their capacities and...