tructure, and Rivalry
The structure and management systems of firms in different countries can potentially affect competitiveness. German firms are oftentimes very hierarchical, which has resulted in advantages within industries such as engineering. In comparison, Danish firms are oftentimes more flat and organic, which leads to advantages within industries such as biochemistry and design. Likewise, if rivalry in the domestic market is very fierce, companies may build up capabilities that can act as competitive advantages on a global scale. Home markets with less rivalry may therefore be counterproductive, and act as a barrier in the generating of global competitive advantages such as innovation and development. 1.
(a) Capital Markets
Domestic capital markets affect the strategy of firms. Some countries’ capital markets have a long-run outlook, while others have a short-run outlook. Industries vary in how long the long-run is. Countries with a short-run outlook (like the U.S.) will tend to be more competitive in industries where investment is short-term (like the computer industry). Countries with a long run outlook (like Switzerland) will tend to be more competitive in industries where investment is long term (like the pharmaceutical industry). (b) Individuals’ Career Choices
Individuals base their career decisions on opportunities and prestige. A country will be competitive in an industry whose key personnel hold positions that are considered prestigious. 2.
Porter argues that the best management styles vary among industries. Some countries may be oriented toward a particular style of management. Those countries will tend to be more competitive in industries for which that style of management is suited. •
For example, Germany tends to have hierarchical management structures composed of managers with strong technical backgrounds and Italy has smaller, family-run firms. 3.
Porter argues that intense competition spurs...
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