Port of Rotterdam

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Introduction
Port of Rotterdam is located in the city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. The high importance of this port is indisputable. It is the largest port in Europe and one of the busiest ports in the world. It used to be the busiest port in the world since 1962 until 2004 but now this title was overtaken first by Shanghai and then by Singapore. Rotterdam until 2009 also appeared on the list of ten world-largest container ports in terms of TEU (twenty-foot equivalent units) handled. The size of the Port of Rotterdam amounts to 105 square kilometres and the length stretches to 40 kilometres. The port gives access to approximately 500 million consumers from different countries all over Europe. This paper has the aim of looking closer at some aspects concerning the Port of Rotterdam. Right after the introduction chapter, I would like to mention some historical facts about the port and area in which it is situated. In the following part I will present a few facts and figures regarding the Port of Rotterdam. The next chapter will be devoted to means of transport available from the port and possibilities of conveying goods depending on their final destination. After that the description of cargo types in the Port of Rotterdam will be made in the chapter ‘Characteristics’ together with mentioning some main industries for this city. The tasks, aims and specifics of the Port of Rotterdam Authority will be described in the following section. After that some possible changes and plans of development of the Port of Rotterdam will be featured and at the end a short conclusion will be made.

History
The Ports of Rotterdam history goes back to the 14th century. The port developed together with the city of Rotterdam, which turned from a small town into a major harbour city. Before 19th century, docks were built on the bank of the Nieuve Maas river. Because of the uncomfortable way into the port, with many small waterways in the delta estuary, the Rotterdam Port had in the 19th century weak connections with the North Sea. It took several days or even more for ships to go around the island of Voorne-Putten and go out to the sea. In the first half of the 20th century, to improve the linkage with the North Sea, an idea of building a large canal came up. It was designed to connect the Rhine and Meuse rivers to the sea and first it was supposed to be partly dug and the natural flow of the water was to deepen the canal bed. Finally however the constructors had to dig the last part as well. The Nieuve Waterweg (‘New Waterway’), because that is the name given to the canal, provided the Port of Rotterdam with a direct connection with the Northern Sea and it was deep enough for the ships to go through. The creation of the canal was finished in 1872 with all sorts of industrial activities formed on its banks. Since the building of the Nieve Waterweg, it has been deepened several times. Thanks to the construction of the canal, the port became busier, it had a possibility to receive and send products to a wider variety of countries. The further development consisted in building new docks and harbour-basins, mostly in the direction of the sea. The area of the harbour in Rotterdam has been enlarged by building the Europoort (gate to Europe) compex along the estuary of the Nieuve Waterweg canal. It is a very heavily industrialized territory, which extends the port seawards. Even bigger enlargement was made in the 1970s, when Maasvlakte (Meuse-plain) was completed. It is a part of Europoort, which was built in the North Sea near Hoek van Holland with the sand taken mostly from the bottom of the sea. By the construction of Maasvlakte, the lake Oostvoorne was created. Before the construction, it was a sandbank, where it was risky to ship. In the past five years a large number of wind turbines using the location and profitable in this case exposed coastal conditions has been added. A second Maasvlakte was supposed to be created because the project...
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