population geography-notes

Topics: Demography, Population, Human migration Pages: 49 (17495 words) Published: April 25, 2014
Human Geography – Population
1. Population Dynamics
Fertility
Contemporary fertility differentials at global and national levels Proximate variables affecting fertility
Biological (years in marriage, IVF, sterilisation, contraception, abortions) Socio-economic (economic/social value of children, status of women in work) Institutional (government policies and religion)

Mortality
Contemporary mortality differentials at global and national levels Factors affecting mortality
Demographic (age and gender)
Medical technology (advances in medical care)
Public health measures (sanitation, vaccination)
Socio-economic changes (standard of living)
Political (genocide, wars)
Epidemics (Spanish flu) and pandemics (AIDS)
Migration
Concepts
Time (short and long term movements)
Distance (national and transnational, origin and destination) Transnational movement (skilled and unskilled labour)
Issues in migration
Labour migration and impact
Identity and nationhood
2. Implications of Population Change
Population Composition and Distribution
Overview of world population growth and future projections in LDCs and DCs Population distribution across space and inequalities in distribution Need for and problems of population forecasting at national scale Problems of population prediction

Future problems and opportunities resulting from population change and policies in different parts of the world Interpretation of population pyramids
Interpretation of population pyramids and relationship to growth rates Dependency and its implications
Coping with population growth (housing, work and services)
Coping with population loss (maintaining viable communities) Value and limitations of population pyramids in prediction
Socio-economic composition
Ethnic diversity
Inequality between different populations and different sectors of the same population Indices used to measure inequalities in population
Population Change and Planning
Population growth in relation to Demographic Transition Model DTM and its usefulness
Consideration of the 5th stage
Anti-natal and pro-natal policies
Role of governments in planning developments in light of forecasts of population change (in numbers and composition of national populations) Population forecasting and government policies affecting population growth and their implications Population-Resource Relationships

Carrying capacity, optimum population, overpopulation and underpopulation Population-resource theories, origins and value
Malthus
Meadows
I=PAT (Impact = Population x Affluence x Technology, Ehrlich and Holdren) Development and resource use
Global variations in resource use
Changes in society (technological, economic and political) result in changing appraisals of resources and environments, their use and management) Hedonist vs. conservationist views of population-resource relationship and their consequences Relationship of population growth to environmental conditions and the changing resource base Contrasting assessment of population-resource relationships

Sustainable development

1. Population Dynamics
Fertility

Discuss the fertility differentials between LDCs and DCs.
Discuss how the different proximate variables affect fertility in LDCs and DCs. Evaluate the impact of governments’ influence on the proximate variables in attempting to achieve a desired fertility rate.

Key Terms Regarding Fertility
Fertility: The natural capability of giving life, dependent on nutrition, culture, economics, way of life, sexual behaviour. Fecundity: The ability to reproduce – differs from fertility in that fecundity represents the potential to reproduce biologically, while fertility means actually reproducing. Crude Birth Rate (CBR): Measures total number of births over a unit of time per 1000 in any given population. CBR varies between countries, and is usually between 10-55 per 1000. ‘Crude’ is termed as such because factors such as age, sex and migration are...
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