I. Lower Class Participation
a. Regional Fragmentation
Fragmentation occurs when cities create separate organizations and infrastructures to provide the same services. Local country cities were more concerned with local food prices and employment than which faction would run the government.
b. Divided Upper Class
Country people (local automony) opposed both Liberal and Conservative policies to develop the economy
Latin American civil conflicts involved only a few thousand soldiers. However, local and regional bosses required and utilized regular retainers recruited from their areas.
II. Urban Lower Class
a. Formed the backbone of Iturbide’s support. Although Iturbide was unwilling to use their support because of his sense of solidarity w/ the upper class.
b. Llaneros, originally were not included in Simon Bolivar’s independence plans but were later included and very useful.
c. Mobs…often gave support to one group or another. Parian Riot, circa 1828, erupted in support of Vicente Guerrero for president. Rio de Janeiro helped to force out Pedro I to abdicate in 1831.
III. Lower Class testicular fortitude
a. Influenced national politics by fighting long after the upper class stopped fighting foreign invaders.
b. Upper class often surrendered to or collaborated with the enemy. Ex…1847 Santa Anna.
c. War of the Pacific 1879-1883. Lower class civilians continued to fight invading Chileans.
IV. Upper Class Dilemma
a. The need for support from the lower classes.
b. Lower class not easy to control once and uprising accured. Fear of a Haitian based revolt.
c. 1835 Belem, Brazil: Blacks and Indios joined the white upper class seeking independence for their region but it had taken...