Directions: You can print out OR type in answers OR hand write answers on a separate piece of paper. Email if you have any problems. The website is http://www.wiley.com/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/signal_transduction/signal_transduction.htm if you are having troubles with the link. OVERVIEW
1. What is the end result (or purpose) of the signal transduction pathway?
2. What are the two possible scenarios for a protein signal after it has been activated by a signal transduction pathway? (Make sure to explain in your own words)
3. How do your cells communicate over long distances (i.e. what did the signaling cell use to “talk” with the target cell? How do they travel these long distances?
4. Why is transduction of the signal by the hormone even necessary?
5. How would you explain a signal cascade to a 6th grader?
6. Give an example of when your body probably used extra of the hormone epinephrine?
7. Create of flow chart showing the signal transduction pathway of epinephrine, starting at the adrenal gland and finishing with increased muscle energy. Make sure it is a flow chart like the ones from the Dog ED case study, NOT a diagram from the animation. Remember to represent amplification by using bigger arrows for later steps.
8. How do your cells stop the cellular response when it is not needed anymore?
9. What is a good example of a hormone that does not use transmembrane proteins? Why can it “get away” with this?
10. Choose ONE of the diseases(Cholera, Whooping Cough, some cancers) from the animation and explain (or flowchart) the signal transduction pathway in a way that makes sense to you.
11. Which of the 3 levels of drug intervention would be most effective on your disease from #10 and WHY?