the geographical setting,
natural features and resources
of Pompeii and Herculaneum| 1. Physical 1. P & H located in Bay of Naples (BoN) 1. Mt Vesuvius located above intercontinental fault line (African Eurasian) 2. H is 8km South of Naples 3. P is 22km south of Naples 4. Today further inland than in Antiquity 5. Ruins located on lava spur 6. Naturally occurring hot baths in H & P 7. Fertile soil due to underground lava Allowed for two crops a year 1. Geographical 1. Layout reflected GREEK influence 2. P POP 20,000 at 79AD 3. H POP 5000 at 79AD 4. P had 3 main streets 1. Via Dell Abbondanza (East to West) 2. Via Di Nola (East to West) 3. Via Stabiana (North To South) 5. P had 4 Main Gates/Ports 4. Via Stabiana Via Stabiana
Porta Vesuvia 5. Porta Stabia 6. Porta Nola Via Di Nola 7. Porta Sarno Via Dell Abbondanza 6. H had 2 main streets 8. Decumanus Maximus (40 Meters Wide) 9. Decumanus Inferior 1. Resources 1. P and H had many resources 1. Olive Oil (Huge in P) Big because of climate 2. Perfume – Abundance of flowers in area 3. Wine (Vesuvius seen as one hige vineyard) – Climate suitable 4. Fishing (P famous for Garum) 5. Wool and Textiles (Many Fullonicae found, washing and dying of wool found here) 6. Fruit and Veg – Very fertile soil because of magma| the range of available sources, both written and archaeological, including ancient writers, official inscriptions, graffiti, wall paintings, statues, mosaics, human and animal remains| 2. Range of Sources 2. P & H had many sources 7. Houses, Shrines, Public Buildings (amphitheatre, baths, palestra) 8. Tools, Pottery, Jewllery, House equipment 9. Streetscapes 3. Just Pompeii 10. Weapons and Armour 11. Wines and Oils 12. Forum 13. Temples 14. Brothels 4. Just Herculaneum 15. Fishing nets 16. Wax tablets 17. Glass wear 18. Food and Organic material | Written Sources| 3. Written Sources Include 1. Pliny the Elder 1. Wrote extensively of the natural disasters before the eruption 2. Pliny the Younger 2. Wrote of the eruption, eye witness 3. Suetonius 3. Wrote about Pliny the elder and relief work after the eruption 4. Graffiti 4. Examples in both towns 5. Evidence of social relation, commerce, sexuality, politics and public comment 5. Wall Paintings 6. In houses show evidence of religious belief, food, family 7. Business, shows commerce and trade 8. Public Buildings (Temples) – evidence of legalities, politics and religion| LIMITATIONS 4. Pliny’s account was not until 25 years later 5. Graffiti provides personal opinion but reliability is a problem 6. No personal writing (letters, poems, lists, or stories) has been found 7. There are gaps in the records| EVIDENCE FORERUPTION| 8. House of banker Caecilius Jucundus 6. Picture shows the collapse of buildings 9. Aqueducts, Temples, Bakeries 7. The water in the aqueducts had stopped flowing, and the aqueducts show signs of needing to be repaired. This shows that damage had been cause in the earthquake of 62 8. At the time of the eruption (79) many temples were in the process of being repaired, the earthquake of 62 had destroyed many buildings 9. The people were using the bakery grinders top mix the mortar instead of making bread 10. Pliny’s letter to Tacitus 10. Is the only 1st hand account. Is true to the analysis of Sigurdsson. 11. Eruption in 2 stages 11. Plinian Phase 9. Cloud of toxic gas, ash, and rubble went into the atmosphere 10. Most of this material fell onto P 11. Minimal fatalities here 12. Pyroclastic surges (Peléan Phase) 12. Lava flows over the two towns...