Polymer Processing

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yChapter 3.
Polymer Processing

Polymer Process Techniques

Fig. 3.1. Procedure for casting sheets of polymer.

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HEMA = hydroxyethyl methacrylate
EGDMA = ethylene glycol dimethacrylate

Fig. 3.2. Centrifugal mold for poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) contact lenses

Solvent casting of films

Fig. 3.3. Laboratory spreading device for the solution casting of films.

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Roll casting

Fig. 3.4. Knife coating of a polymer onto a film.

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Fig. 3.5. Polymer casting bench.

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Fig. 3.6. Solution casting of films on an industrial scale with the use of rotating metal drums.

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Fig. 3.7. Use of a moving-belt system for the continuous solution casting of polymer films.

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Fig. 3.8. ‘Bubble’ blowing of films.

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Fig. 3.9. Film manufacture by calendering.

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Methods for melt processing of films

Fig. 3.10. Hydraulic press for the melt pressing of polymer films.

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Fig. 3.11. Sequence of operations for the melt extrusion of polymer films.

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Fig. 3.12. Diagram of a plastics extruder.

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Fig. 3.13. Diagram of a compression-molding press and mold.

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Melt process

Fig. 3.14. Diagram of an injection-molding machine.

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Fig. 3.15. Thermoforming of polymer sheets.

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Fig. 3.16. ‘Plug flow reactor’ to manufacture radiation crosslinked tubings or belts.

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Reaction Injection Molding (RIM)
Advantages:
① Large parts
② Low viscosity
③ Inexpensive
Materials :
① Urethanes
② Polyureas
③ Nylon
④ Polyolefins
Fig. 3.17. Reaction injection molding (RIM) device to produce reinforced polyurethanes. ① Cylinder charged with diol and triol plus dibutyltin dilaurate ② Cylinder charged with molten diisocyanate

③ Half of split mold
④ Half of split mold
⑤ Cavity to be filled with reinforcing fiber, then with mixed liquid from nozzle ⑥ Nozzle for mixing streams from ① and ②

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Fig. 3.18. Apparatus for the laboratory wet spinning of fibers.

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Fig. 3.19. Use of a motor-driven syringe pump for the laboratory preparation of wet-spun fibers.

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Fig. 3.20. Laboratory assembly for the
dry spinning of fibers.

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Fig. 3.21. Industrial wet spinning.

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Fig. 3.22. Laboratory or pilot-plant
equipment for the melt extrusion of fibers.

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Fig. 3.23. Manufacturing equipment for
the dry spinning of fibers.

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Fig. 3.24. Equipment for the melt
spinning of fibers on an industrial scale.

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Fig. 3.25. Three methods for the continuous
orientation of synthetic fibers.
(a) The fiber passes round a ‘peg’ which
stabilizes the stretch orientation being
induced by the faster-turning set of rollers.
(b)...
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