‘Pollution is a harmful change in the natural environment caused by human activities: This may be the release of substances which are toxic to either animals or plants, or it may be the release of energy (heat, light, radiation, or sound) which interferes with the development of animals or plants.’ As claimed by http://www.sambal.co.uk/pollution.html. This would indicate that control would involve minimising health risks. Health is defined as a ‘complete state of mental, physical and social well-being, with the absence of disease or infirmity. (WHO website) therefore ‘health risk’ is stated as ‘the possibility that something unpleasant or unwelcome will happen’. The amount and types of pollution can correlate to varied types of health risk; this report will investigate the complex causes of health risk and how pollution control can minimize effects. There are different types of pollution. The first type of pollution is air pollution that is caused by emissions of harmful substances into the air from vehicles and factories etc. Air pollution results in acid rain, ozone depletion and smog. Water pollution is caused when things that deteriorate water quality become a part of it. Next type is land, or also known as, soil pollution that occurs due to the accumulation of solid waste and other non degradable materials into the soil. Another type of pollution is noise pollution that is common in cities and occurs when the level of noise is so high that it is uncomfortable. Another type is radioactive pollution that is caused by the increased use of nuclear energy, although it does not release pollutants like CO2, it is still harmful due to the high penetrating power. The last type of pollution is thermal or heat pollution that adds heat to the environment and increases the temperature of the environment. Effective and sustainable management of pollution ‘To what extent is pollution control a key strategy in reducing health risk’[pic] How far? Reducing morbidity and mortality and improving life quality.
Figure 1 exhibits the health risk equation:
[Health risk = Risk + Vulnerability – Management]
This enables the calculation of anything that would cause an individual harm (health risk) which involves the specific type of disease (risk) added to the likeliness a person is to be affected (vulnerability) minus the different management techniques. The equation allows one to calculate the health risk, whilst minimising the actual risk and vulnerability of the individual. Pollution can be sustained or incidental. Sustained pollution is an example of the problem people face in China. Black carbon is a major component of Chinese haze, with a small diameter, meaning particles can penetrate deep inside the lungs. China’s emissions of nitrogen oxide have increased 3.8% a year for 25 years. http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=392&catid=10&subcatid=66 Or pollution can be incidental; such examples would include Bhopal and Chernobyl. This report will discuss the following case studies in order to conclude the ‘extent to which pollution control is a key strategy in reducing health risk’; Bhopal demonstrates effects of incidental pollution on both the environment and the economy and how better management of pollution control can contribute to helping reduce health risk. China faces a more sustained problem of pollution, this report will compare and contrast the dangers of health risk and how they are heightened in this country; respiratory diseases affect a large proportion of the population, this could be reduced through better pollution control. Skin cancer in Australia is focused more on lifestyle choices affecting the risk factor, and whether pollution control will help rule out one of the main causes of death in Australia. HIV/AIDS is a virus which attacks the...