Pollution as a Result of the Urban Transport Sector and Remediation put in Place to Reduce the Effects. Pollution has been around form as back as history can date. To this day pollution has continued to be a rising worldwide issue. According to Blacksmith Institute Solving Pollution Problems Saving lives “Pollution is the introduction of substances that contaminate and poison the environment.” The article went on to further say “Pollution can come from chemical waste dumped into rivers, factories spewing toxins into the air, scavengers burning e-waste to extract valuable components, industrial accidents, and many other sources.” Any substance that contributes to pollution is known as a pollutant. A pollutant can be more formally defined as “A substance or condition that contaminates air, water, or soil.” (The American Heritage Science Dictionary 2005) Pollution has been proven to the cause of much disease out breaks worldwide. Of late many notional and international organizations have come up remediation methods to reduce the effects of pollution and pollution on a whole. There are three main types of pollution air, land and water pollution. There are two, main sources of pollution non-point and point. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines point source pollution as “any single identifiable source of pollution from which pollutants are discharged, such as a pipe, ditch, ship or factory smokestack.” According to United States Environmental Protection Agency in an article What is Nonpoint Source Pollution? “The term "nonpoint source" is defined to mean any source of water pollution that does not meet the legal definition of "point source" in that no one thing can be identified as the source of pollution” One type of point source pollution is pollution that surrounds the urban transport sector. The urban transport sector is known to be a high contributor to pollution in the environment. The higher the level of concentration of transport activities, the higher their environmental impacts are being felt by the local community. This paper will discuss the part that the urban transport sector plays in air, water, noise and land pollutions. It was also discuss preventive measures and radiation that are put in place to reduce pollution caused by the urban transport sector.
The Urban transport sector as a source of air pollution
Transport is widely recognized to be a significant and increasing source of air pollution worldwide. Emissions from cars buses and other means of transport have contributed to the high levels of toxic substances in atmosphere. These emissions are also highly associated with many repertory diseases. According to the article Reducing Air pollution From Urban Transport by Ken Gwillam “The World Health Organization Estimated that 650,000 people died prematurely from urban air pollution in 2000”. The most significant transport emissions to the atmosphere by mass are carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (H2O) from the complete combustion of the fuel used in various vehicles. Excess of these substances in the atmosphere contributes greatly to climate change. Other emissions include sculpture dioxide (SO2), Nitric oxide (NO), Nitrous (N2O) and Carbon monoxide (CO). Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas. When inhaled, it combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, preventing absorption of oxygen and resulting in asphyxiation. According to RN Colvile in an article The Transport Sector as a Source of Air Pollution “60 to 65% of life cycle greenhouse gasses from a petrol-engine car are Carbon dioxide exhaust emissions during use with a further 10% being non-carbon dioxide exhaust emissions during use. The remainder 10% is associated with the car’s manufacture and a further 15 to 20% emitted during extraction refining and transport of its fuel.” RN Colvile went further to state that “Other volatile organic compounds are emitted on evaporation during painting the bodywork as well as...
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