Pollution: APES Study Guide

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Apes Study guide: Pollution
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1. Define the following words:
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a.pollution-introduction of harmful materials or harmful conditions to the environment * -------------------------------------------------
b.contamination-making something unfit for a particular use through the introduction of undesirable material * -------------------------------------------------
c.toxicology-science that studies chemicals that are toxic
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d.carcinogen-toxin that increases the risk of cancer
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e.synergism-interaction of different substances resulting in a total effect greater than the sum of the separate sources * -------------------------------------------------
f.methyl mercury-bioaccumulative, toxic,
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g.effective dose-ed50-50% of tested subjects were affected by this dose * -------------------------------------------------
h.lethal dose-ld50source-50% of tested subjects were killed by this dose * -------------------------------------------------
i.toxic-dose-td50-50% of tested subjects toxicated by this dose * -------------------------------------------------
j.threshold-
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k.point source- smoke stacks, pipes that lead to water ways * -------------------------------------------------
l.area source- non point sources, diffused over land and include runoff and moblie sources such as automatic exhaust (difficult to isolate b/c problem widely dispersed over region) * -------------------------------------------------

m.mobile source-cars
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n.non point source-more diffused and harder to control the pollution * -------------------------------------------------
o.tolerance-the ability to resist
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p.biomagnification- nutrients in a food chain increases as it travels up the food chain * -------------------------------------------------

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2. how do you conver from ppm to ppb?
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1,000 ppb = 1ppm
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3. Know the different catergories of pollutants,how they are produced and their toxic effect. * -------------------------------------------------
a.infectious agents-e.coli, cholera
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b.toxic heavy metals-very dangerous
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c.persistand organic pollutants; patrols the area for a long time * -------------------------------------------------
d.radiation- causes cancer
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e.thermal pollution -discharge of heated liquids or air into lakes, streams, etc * -------------------------------------------------
f. HAA - birth defects
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g.Particulates: Particles
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h. Asbestos : prevent fire
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i. Electromagnetic fields
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j. Noise Pollution: unwanted noise
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k. Voluntary exposure: being a noob and exposing yourself.
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4. What are the 4 steps in risk...
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